Vax-Before-Travel Travel Vaccines 2024
Getting vaccinated against infectious diseases is one of the most effective ways to protect your health while traveling abroad, says the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most travel vaccines should be administered at least one month before departure to ensure maximum protection. Various U.S. Food and Drug (FDA), UK NHS, and European Medicines Agency (EMA) travel vaccines are approved, and the WHO published an updated List of vaccines in 2024.
Travel Vaccine Advisories
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes Travel Health Advisories and Travel Assessment, which enable international travelers to confirm vaccine requirements for each country. In addition, the CDC issued an update to Frequently Asked Travel Questions and Answers. The CDC lists the minimum ages and intervals between doses for available travel vaccines recommended in the U.S. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), U.K. Foreign Travel Advice, and the European Centers for Disease Control (ECDC) publish vaccine recommendations. Travel vaccine hotspots in 2024 include Brazil, Cancun, Costa Rica, Florida, Haiti, Jamaica, New York, and Puerto Rico. And Healthmap.org publishes disease outbreaks segment by country. The Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit provides actionable entomological intelligence that best assesses global vector-borne disease risks.
Travel Vaccine Cruise Ships
As of 2024, the CDC publishes guidance for cruise ships for Acute Respiratory Illness management and prevention. The Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) requires cruise ships to report the number of people who say they have symptoms of gastrointestinal illness. The VSP report was updated in February 2024.
Travel Vaccination Appointments
In Texas, pre-departure travel vaccination services are offered in Austin, Cedar Park, Dallas, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, San Marcus, and Tyler. And in Massachusetts at Destination Health Travel Clinic.
A total of 1,166 suspected anthrax cases have been recorded in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe in 2023. Zambia is witnessing its largest outbreak since 2011, reporting 684 suspected cases and four deaths.
CYFENDUS ™ (AV7909, BioThrax®), a two-dose anthrax vaccine for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis, was approved on July 20, 2023.
Avian Influenza Vaccines
Audenz™ is a U.S. FDA-approved monovalent, adjuvanted, cell-based inactivated subunit vaccine.
As of 2024, there is one approved chikungunya vaccine. The U.S. CDC published Recommendations for Chikungunya Vaccine Use Among Adult Travelers on October 26, 2023. Chikungunya outbreaks are primarily found in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
IXCHIQ® (VLA1553) is an approved monovalent, single-dose, live-attenuated chikungunya vaccine. Valneva SE's VLA1553 is currently the only chikungunya vaccine showing fully sustained titers 1-year after a single vaccination.
CHIKV-VLP Chikungunya vaccine candidate is a multi-protein structure that mimics the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome, which could promote a more robust immune response and increased antibody production.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody isolated initially from the B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection.
As of 2024, cholera vaccines remain on allocation, with limited availability. Three WHO-prequalified two-dose oral cholera vaccines, Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®, are used for international travelers. Cholera outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, Malawi, Africa, and Syria during 2023.
Vaxchora is an oral cholera vaccine for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.
DUKORAL® is available in Europe, the U.K., and various countries.
Dengvaxia® is a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine licensed in the U.S. and elsewhere.
QDENGA® is a tetravalent dengue vaccine licensed in Indonesia, Europe, the U.K., and Brazil.
Diphtheria outbreaks continue in countries such as Guinea and Niger. In recent years, there have been outbreaks of diphtheria due to inadequate vaccine coverage, as about 16% of children are not fully vaccinated, says the WHO. The U.S. CDC says travelers two months and older traveling to outbreak areas should receive an age-appropriate dose of diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine if they are not fully vaccinated or have not received a booster dose within five years before departure. There are 11 vaccines available to help protect against diphtheria in 2024.
Ebola outbreaks in Africa began in 1976 and continued in 2024.
Ervebo, Ebola Zaire Vaccine, Live, is a recombinant, replication-competent Ebola vaccine with a vesicular stomatitis virus, which has been genetically engineered to express a glycoprotein from the Zaire ebolavirus to provoke a neutralizing immune response to the Ebola virus.
Combining Zabdeno (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea (MVA-BN-Filo) is an Ebola vaccine therapy.
Ebanga™ (mAb114, Ansuvimab-zykl) is a human monoclonal antibody approved for treating Zaire ebolavirus infections.
Sudan Ebolavirus vaccines are being developed in clinical trials.
Hajj and Umrah Vaccinations
The Saudi Ministry of Health established vaccine requirements for visitors to obtain an Entry Visa for Hajj and Umrah in 2024.
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
JENVAC is a single-dose inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. This Vero cell-derived vaccine is prepared from the virus's Indian strain (Kolar- 821564XYs).
Ixiaro is an inactivated, adsorbed Vero cell culture-derived vaccine targeted against the Japanese encephalitis virus. It is prepared by propagating JEV strain SA14-14-2 in Vero cells.
Lassa Fever Vaccine
Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever without an approved vaccine in 2024.
The risk of acquiring leptospirosis, a bacterial disease, is reduced by not swimming in water contaminated with animal urine. Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. At least one-third of patients who develop aseptic meningitis continue to complain of headaches and other neurological deficits chronically.
Lyme Disease Vaccines
VLA15 is a multivalent recombinant protein vaccine candidate targeting Borrelia's outer surface protein A designed for prophylactic, active immunization against Lyme disease to protect people
Mosquirix (RTS,S/AS01e) is a recombinant vaccine that triggers the immune system to defend against the first stages of infections when the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite enters the human host's bloodstream through a mosquito bite.
R21/Matrix-M™ Malaria vaccine is produced by the Serum Institute of India and developed by scientists at the University of Oxford in England. As of October 2023, the WHO recommends it.
Marburg Disease Vaccines
M-M-R II vaccine is also known as the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, a live virus vaccine containing weakened forms of the measles, mumps, and rubella virus. M-M-R II works by helping the immune system protect itself from these viruses.
Priorix is currently licensed in over 100 countries. It is recommended for use in individuals aged ≥nine months, according to a 1- or 2-dose vaccination scenery.
VTP-500 vaccine candidate completed Phase I clinical trials in Britain and Saudi Arabia, and the University of Oxford a Phase Ib trial in the U.K. to assess vaccination of older adults.
As of 2024, the U.S. FDA has not approved a norovirus vaccine candidate.
Nipah Virus Vaccines
Nipah virus vaccine candidates continue in phase 1 clinical trials in 2023. Since 1999, Nipah outbreaks have occurred in Asia, including Bangladesh and India.
Because human plague is rare in most parts of the world, there is no need to vaccinate persons other than those at exceptionally high risk of exposure, says the WHO. Many plague patients in the western United States are infected due to wild-rodent plague. According to Gendarmerie, there have been at least twenty suspicious deaths linked to the plague in Madagascar since September 2023.
The WHO-Plague Vaccines in Preclinical Development and Clinical Trials was published in 2023. Primary outcomes were efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity assessed using the Cochrane Collaborations tool. Only 2 RCTs on subunit vaccines were included out of the 75 screened articles. The study concluded a single-dose F1-based mRNA-LNP vaccine protects the lethal plague bacterium.
IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). Sanofi Pasteur's single-antigen IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency.
Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine is a liquid trivalent vaccine produced from Sabin poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 strains grown on Vero cells.
nOPV2 polio vaccine is derived from the live, infectious virus, but it has been 'triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2 is genetically more stable than existing OPVs.
Various rabies vaccines and candidates seek to reduce rabies mortality in 2024.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
RMSF is endemic in multiple border states in northern Mexico, including but not exclusive to Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Nuevo León. As of December 8, 2023, five patients have been diagnosed with confirmed RMSF since late July 2023; all had traveled to or residence in Tecate within two weeks of illness onset. As of December 2023, there is no approved RMSF vaccine. However, the CDC says early treatment with doxycycline saves lives.
Since 2019, four rotavirus vaccines have been prequalified by the WHO.
GSK's Rotarix is a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine that exposes your child to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease.
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine
TicoVac vaccine is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the brand names FSME-Immun® in Europe and TICOVAC™ in the U.S. It was developed using a master 'seed' virus similar to the tick-borne encephalitis virus found in nature.
The BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis and tuberculosis meningitis and is used for nonspecific protective effects. Various BCG vaccines are available globally in 2023. T.B. outbreaks have been reported in certain U.S. states and multiple countries.
Typhoid vaccines are available in 2023 and are recommended for people traveling to places where typhoid fever is common, such as South Asia (India).
Vivotif oral vaccine (capsules) is indicated for the immunization of adults and children over six years of age against disease caused by Salmonella Typhi. It contains live bacteria called Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a, which does not cause typhoid fever. Bavarian Nordic A/S owns Vivotif Oral and is available in the U.S.
Typbar TCV is a vaccine containing polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi Ty2 conjugated to Tetanus Toxoid.
Typhim VI is a sterile solution prepared from the purified polysaccharide capsule of Salmonella typhi (Ty 2 strain).
Yellow Fever Vaccines
YF-VAX® vaccine is licensed in the U.S. and requires about ten days to produce maximum immunity.
Stamaril® is distributed in over 70 countries in 2023, but not in the U.S.
Zika Virus Vaccines
Combination Travel Vaccines
Kinrix is a vaccine to prevent Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Pertussis, and Polio.
Pediarix is a vaccine containing noninfectious proteins from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis bacteria, hepatitis B virus, and inactivated polioviruses.
Travel Vaccine Certificates
Travel vaccination certificate information for yellow fever and polio is posted by Precision Vax. The WHO and European Commission announced in 2023 that the European Union digital certification system will become a global system facilitating international mobility. In May 2023, a notice of End to Requirement was issued for air passengers to provide proof of vaccination before visiting the U.S.
Travel Vaccine FAQs
The U.S. CDC's Traveler-based Genomic Surveillance (TGS) is a nasal sampling program testing people for Flu A/B, RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and other respiratory pathogens at leading airports in the U.S. TGS offers an early warning system to detect emerging infectious threats in near real-time. Frequently asked questions and answers related to travel vaccines are published by trusted sources, such as:
- Immunization Action Coalition
- The U.S. Health & Human Services
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- U.S. Department of State
- World Health Organization
- U.K. National Health Service
Note: This content is aggregated from various news sources and vaccine research organizations and has been fact-checked by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.