Travel Vaccines 2023
Travel Vaccines 2023
Getting vaccinated against infectious diseases is one of the most effective ways to protect your health while traveling abroad, says the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.K.'s Foreign Travel Advice, most travel vaccines should be administered at least one month before departure to ensure maximum protection. Various U.S. Food and Drug (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) travel vaccines are approved, and the WHO's Listed as of September 2023. During 2023, innovative clinical trials empower people to participate in vaccine development and potentially receive compensation.
The CDC's Travel Assessment enables travelers to confirm vaccine requirements for each country. In addition, the CDC published an update to Frequently Asked Travel Questions and Answers. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) published updated travel vaccine recommendations in 2023. The WHO and European Commission announced in June 2023 that the European Union digital certification system will become a global system facilitating international mobility. In May 2023, a notice of End to Requirement was issued for Air Passengers to provide proof of COVID-19 Vaccination before visiting the U.S.
Travel Vaccine Hot Spots 2023
As of 2023, there are no approved chikungunya vaccines. Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes with the chikungunya virus. Chikungunya outbreaks are primarily found in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Brazil, and the Indian subcontinent.
VLA1553 is a monovalent, single-dose, live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine candidate conducting late-stage, phase 3 studies. Valneva SE's VLA1553 is currently the only chikungunya vaccine showing fully sustained titers 1-year after a single vaccination.
CHIKV-VLP Chikungunya vaccine candidate is a multi-protein structure that mimics the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome, which could promote a more robust immune response and increased antibody production.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody isolated initially from the B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection.
As of October 2023, cholera vaccines remain on allocation, with limited availability. Three WHO pre-qualified two-dose oral cholera vaccines: Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®, are used for international travelers. Cholera outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, Malawi, Africa, and Syria during 2023.
Vaxchora is an oral cholera vaccine for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.
DUKORAL® is available in Europe, the U.K., and various countries.
Dengvaxia® is a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine licensed in the U.S. and elsewhere.
QDENGA® is a tetravalent dengue vaccine licensed in Indonesia, Europe, the U.K., and Brazil.
Ervebo, Ebola Zaire Vaccine, Live, is a recombinant, replication-competent Ebola vaccine with a vesicular stomatitis virus, which has been genetically engineered to express a glycoprotein from the Zaire ebolavirus to provoke a neutralizing immune response to the Ebola virus. Combining Zabdeno (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea (MVA-BN-Filo) is an Ebola vaccine therapy.
Ebanga™ (mAb114, Ansuvimab-zykl) is a human monoclonal antibody approved for treating Zaire ebolavirus infections.
Sudan Ebolavirus vaccines are in development in clinical trials.
Flu shots are recommended for international travelers wherever influenza viruses spread in 2023.
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
JENVAC is a single-dose inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. This Vero cell-derived vaccine is prepared from the virus's Indian strain (Kolar- 821564XYs).
Ixiaro is an inactivated, adsorbed Vero cell culture-derived vaccine targeted against the Japanese encephalitis virus. It is prepared by propagating JEV strain SA14-14-2 in Vero cells.
Malaria vaccines are available in Africa in 2023 but not in the U.S.
Mosquirix (RTS,S/AS01e) is a recombinant vaccine that triggers the immune system to defend against the first stages of infections when the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite enters the human host's bloodstream through a mosquito bite.
R21/Matrix-M™ Malaria Vaccine is produced by the Serum Institute of India and developed by scientists at the University of Oxford in England and, as of October 2023, is recommended by the WHO.
Marburg vaccine candidates are conducting clinical trials in 2023.
Various measles-prevention vaccines are available in 2023.
M-M-R II vaccine is also known as the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, a live virus vaccine containing weakened forms of the measles, mumps, and rubella virus. M-M-R II works by helping the immune system protect itself from these viruses.
Proquad vaccine is a combined, attenuated, live virus vaccine containing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) viruses.
Priorix is currently licensed in over 100 countries. It is recommended for use in individuals aged ≥nine months, according to a 1- or 2-dose vaccination scenery.
As of September 2023, there are no approved MERS-CoV vaccines.
The JYNNEOS smallpox-mpox vaccine is available in certain urban cities.
Nipah Virus Vaccines
Nipah virus vaccine candidates continue in phase 1 clinical trials in 2023.
Polio vaccination is recommended when visiting polio-endemic countries.
IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). Sanofi Pasteur's single-antigen IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency.
Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine is a liquid trivalent vaccine produced from Sabin poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 strains grown on Vero cells.
nOPV2 polio vaccine is derived from the live, infectious virus, but it has been 'triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2M4a is genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence.
RabAvert is a vaccine that contains an inactivated rabies antigen indicated for preexposure vaccination, both primary and booster dos, es, and postexposure prophylaxis against rabies in all age groups.
Imovax is an inactivated vaccine made from an attenuated rabies virus. A sterile, stable, freeze-dried suspension of Rabies Vaccine Inactivated virus prepared from WISTAR Rabies PM/WI 38 1503-3M strain.
GSK's Rotarix is a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine that exposes your child to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease.
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine
TicoVac vaccine is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the brand names FSME-Immun® in Europe and TICOVAC™ in the U.S. It was developed using a master 'seed' virus similar to the tick-borne encephalitis virus found in nature.
Vivotif oral vaccine (capsules) is indicated for the immunization of adults and children over six years of age against disease caused by Salmonella Typhi. Vivotif Oral contains live bacteria called Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a, which does not cause typhoid fever and is owned by Bavarian Nordic A/S and available in the U.S.
Typbar TCV is a vaccine containing polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi Ty2 conjugated to Tetanus Toxoid.
Typhim VI is a sterile solution prepared from the purified polysaccharide capsule of Salmonella typhi (Ty 2 strain).
Yellow Fever Vaccines
YF-VAX® vaccine is licensed in the U.S. and requires about ten days to produce maximum immunity.
Stamaril® is distributed in over 70 countries in 2023, but not in the U.S.
Combination Travel Vaccines
Kinrix is a vaccine to prevent Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Pertussis, and Polio.
Pediarix is a vaccine containing noninfectious proteins from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis bacteria, hepatitis B virus, and inactivated polioviruses.
Travel Vaccine FAQs
Frequently asked questions and answers related to travel vaccines are published by trusted sources, such as:
- Immunization Action Coalition
- The U.S. Health & Human Services
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- U.S. Department of State
- World Health Organization
- U.K. National Health Service
Note: This content is aggregated from various news sources and vaccine research organizations and has been fact-checked by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.