Vax-Before-Travel Travel Vaccines 2023
Getting vaccinated against infectious diseases is one of the most effective ways to protect your health while traveling abroad, says the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most travel vaccines should be administered at least one month before departure to ensure maximum protection. Various U.S. Food and Drug (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) travel vaccines are approved, and the WHO has published an updated Listed Vaccines as of November 2023.
Travel Vaccine Advisories
In 2023, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes Travel Health Advisories, and Travel Assessment enables travelers to confirm vaccine requirements for each country. In addition, the CDC issued an update to Frequently Asked Travel Questions and Answers. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) published updated travel vaccine recommendations in 2023. The U.K. Foreign Travel Advice and the European Centers for Disease Control (ECDC) also publish vaccination recommendations.
Travel Vaccine Hot Spots 2023
The U.S. Department of State publishes Travel Advisories, and U.S. embassies issue travel security notices for cities and countries. On October 30, 2023, the State Department advised U.S. citizens traveling overseas to exercise increased caution. Travel vaccine hotspots in December 2023 include Cancun, Costa Rica, Florida, Haiti, Jamaica, New York, and Puerto Rico. And Healthmap.org publishes disease outbreaks segment by country.
Travel Vaccination Appointments
Travel Vaccine Certificates
Travel vaccination certificate information for yellow fever and polio is posted by Precision Vax. The WHO and European Commission announced in June 2023 that the European Union digital certification system will become a global system facilitating international mobility. In May 2023, a notice of End to Requirement was issued for air passengers to provide proof of COVID-19 Vaccination before visiting the U.S.
Avian Influenza Vaccines
Audenz™ is a U.S. FDA-approved monovalent, adjuvanted, cell-based inactivated subunit vaccine.
As of 2023, there is one approved chikungunya vaccine. The U.S. CDC published Recommendations for Chikungunya Vaccine Use Among Adult Travelers on October 26, 2023. Chikungunya outbreaks are primarily found in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
IXCHIQ® (VLA1553) is an approved monovalent, single-dose, live-attenuated chikungunya vaccine. Valneva SE's VLA1553 is currently the only chikungunya vaccine showing fully sustained titers 1-year after a single vaccination.
CHIKV-VLP Chikungunya vaccine candidate is a multi-protein structure that mimics the organization and conformation of naturally occurring viruses without the viral genome, which could promote a more robust immune response and increased antibody production.
mRNA-1944 encodes a fully human IgG antibody isolated initially from the B cells of a patient with a prior history of potent immunity against Chikungunya infection.
As of 2023, cholera vaccines remain on allocation, with limited availability. Three WHO-prequalified two-dose oral cholera vaccines, Dukoral®, Shanchol™, and Euvichol®, are used for international travelers. Cholera outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, Malawi, Africa, and Syria during 2023.
Vaxchora is an oral cholera vaccine for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.
DUKORAL® is available in Europe, the U.K., and various countries.
Dengue is a vaccine-preventable disease. Various countries have approved two dengue vaccines, and several candidates are conducting clinical trials in 2023. Dengue outbreaks have accelerated in 2023, including in Florida, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.
Dengvaxia® is a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine licensed in the U.S. and elsewhere.
QDENGA® is a tetravalent dengue vaccine licensed in Indonesia, Europe, the U.K., and Brazil.
Ebola outbreaks in Africa began in 1976 and continue in 2023.
Ervebo, Ebola Zaire Vaccine, Live, is a recombinant, replication-competent Ebola vaccine with a vesicular stomatitis virus, which has been genetically engineered to express a glycoprotein from the Zaire ebolavirus to provoke a neutralizing immune response to the Ebola virus.
The combination of Zabdeno (Ad26.ZEBOV) and Mvabea (MVA-BN-Filo) is an Ebola vaccine therapy.
Ebanga™ (mAb114, Ansuvimab-zykl) is a human monoclonal antibody approved for treating Zaire ebolavirus infections.
Sudan Ebolavirus vaccines are being developed in clinical trials.
Hajj and Umrah Vaccinations
The Saudi Ministry of Health established vaccine requirements for visitors to obtain an Entry Visa for Hajj 2023 and Umrah in 2023.
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
JENVAC is a single-dose inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine. This Vero cell-derived vaccine is prepared from the virus's Indian strain (Kolar- 821564XYs).
Ixiaro is an inactivated, adsorbed Vero cell culture-derived vaccine targeted against the Japanese encephalitis virus. It is prepared by propagating JEV strain SA14-14-2 in Vero cells.
Lassa Fever Vaccine
Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever without an approved vaccine in 2023.
The risk of acquiring leptospirosis, a bacterial disease, is reduced by not swimming in water contaminated with animal urine. Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. At least one-third of patients who develop aseptic meningitis continue to complain of headaches and other neurological deficits chronically.
Lyme Disease Vaccines
VLA15 is a multivalent recombinant protein vaccine candidate targeting Borrelia's outer surface protein A designed for prophylactic, active immunization against Lyme disease to protect people
Mosquirix (RTS,S/AS01e) is a recombinant vaccine that triggers the immune system to defend against the first stages of infections when the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite enters the human host's bloodstream through a mosquito bite.
R21/Matrix-M™ Malaria vaccine is produced by the Serum Institute of India and developed by scientists at the University of Oxford in England. As of October 2023, the WHO recommends it.
Marburg Disease Vaccines
M-M-R II vaccine is also known as the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live, a live virus vaccine containing weakened forms of the measles, mumps, and rubella virus. M-M-R II works by helping the immune system protect itself from these viruses.
The Proquad vaccine is a combined, attenuated, live virus vaccine that contains measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) viruses.
Priorix is currently licensed in over 100 countries. It is recommended for use in individuals aged ≥nine months, according to a 1- or 2-dose vaccination scenery.
Nipah Virus Vaccines
Nipah virus vaccine candidates continue in phase 1 clinical trials in 2023. Since 1999, Nipah outbreaks have occurred in Asia, including Bangladesh and India.
IPOL is a sterile suspension of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett). Sanofi Pasteur's single-antigen IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency.
Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine is a liquid trivalent vaccine produced from Sabin poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 strains grown on Vero cells.
nOPV2 polio vaccine is derived from the live, infectious virus, but it has been 'triple-locked using genetic engineering to prevent it from becoming harmful. nOPV2M4a is genetically more stable than existing OPVs, with a lower risk of reversion to neurovirulence.
Various rabies vaccines and candidates seek to reduce rabies mortality in 2023.
Since 2019, four rotavirus vaccines have been prequalified by the WHO.
GSK's Rotarix is a live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine that exposes your child to a small dose of the virus, which causes the body to develop immunity to the disease.
Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccine
TicoVac vaccine is marketed by Pfizer Inc. under the brand names FSME-Immun® in Europe and TICOVAC™ in the U.S. It was developed using a master 'seed' virus similar to the tick-borne encephalitis virus found in nature.
The BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis and tuberculosis meningitis and is used for nonspecific protective effects. Various BCG vaccines are available globally in 2023. TB outbreaks have been reported in certain U.S. states and multiple countries.
Typhoid vaccines are available in 2023 and are recommended for people traveling to places where typhoid fever is common, such as South Asia (India).
Vivotif oral vaccine (capsules) is indicated for the immunization of adults and children over six years of age against disease caused by Salmonella Typhi. It contains live bacteria called Salmonella typhi strain Ty21a, which does not cause typhoid fever. Bavarian Nordic A/S owns Vivotif Oral and is available in the U.S.
Typbar TCV is a vaccine containing polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi Ty2 conjugated to Tetanus Toxoid.
Typhim VI is a sterile solution prepared from the purified polysaccharide capsule of Salmonella typhi (Ty 2 strain).
Yellow Fever Vaccines
YF-VAX® vaccine is licensed in the U.S. and requires about ten days to produce maximum immunity.
Stamaril® is distributed in over 70 countries in 2023, but not in the U.S.
Zika Virus Vaccines
Combination Travel Vaccines
Kinrix is a vaccine to prevent Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Pertussis, and Polio.
Pediarix is a vaccine containing noninfectious proteins from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis bacteria, hepatitis B virus, and inactivated polioviruses.
Travel Vaccine FAQs
Frequently asked questions and answers related to travel vaccines are published by trusted sources, such as:
- Immunization Action Coalition
- The U.S. Health & Human Services
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- U.S. Department of State
- World Health Organization
- U.K. National Health Service
Note: This content is aggregated from various news sources and vaccine research organizations and has been fact-checked by healthcare providers, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.