Yellow Fever Vaccines

Authored by
Last reviewed
November 5, 2023
Content Overview
Yellow fever vaccines are approved in 2023 for people visiting counties in South America, Central America, Caribbean, Africa and Asia.

Yellow Fever Vaccines 2023

Effective yellow fever vaccines have been available in Europe, the United States, the United Kingdom and have been Listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for decades. The 17D yellow fever vaccine was initially approved for human use in 1938, with about 850 million doses distributed worldwide, reported a study in Nature. The WHO says a single yellow fever vaccination can grant life-long protection. In addition, the Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics (EYE), driven by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), seeks to vaccinate nearly one billion people against yellow fever by 2026. Recent reports indicate a six million 17D-213 vaccine dose capacity in the global stockpile.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Availablity 2023

YF-VAX® vaccine is licensed in the U.S. (BL 103915) and available at certified travel vaccine clinics and pharmacies.

Stamaril® vaccine is available internationally in AfricaAustralia, BarbadosBrazil, the CaribbeanCanada, Chile, Costa Rica, the DRC, EcuadorGermanyIndiaIndonesiaJamaica, Kenya, NigeriaNorthern IrelandMexicoPhilippines, PeruScotland,   SingaporeVenezuela, and the U.K.

Bio-Manguinhos Yellow fever vaccine - In Brazil, the National Immunization Program offers the yellow fever vaccine.

Institut Pasteur Yellow fever vaccine - This vaccine is produced at the Institut Pasteur in DakaThe World Health Organization approves the laboratory to supply the yellow fever vaccine to Expanded Programs on Immunization in Africa.

Chumakov Institute Yellow fever vaccine - The Chumakov Center is a research organization in medical virology. The vaccine is a freeze-dried virus-containing suspension of specific pathogen-free chick embryo tissues infected with attenuated Yellow Fever virus, strain 17D. 

RegaVax is a vaccine candidate using the yellow fever vaccine virus's genetic code as a carrier (or vector) for the coronavirus's genetic code.

Najít Technologies HydroVax-002 YFV is a Novel Inactivated Yellow Fever vaccine candidate conducting phase 1 clinical research with the NIH, evaluating dosages of 1 mcg and 5 mcg was given intramuscularly on Day 1 and Day 29.

Yellow Fever Vaccination and Breast Milk

The Yellow Fever live-attenuated vaccine was detected in Breast Milk. The U.S. CDC recommends against breastfeeding in women until the vaccine exposure risks are evaluated. The CDC suggests temporarily withholding breastfeeding in the ten days following the Yellow Fever vaccination, during which the vaccine content is detectable in Breast Milk. As of 2010, serious adverse events have been reported in exclusively breastfed infants whose mothers were vaccinated with the Yellow Fever vaccine. 

Yellow Fever Vaccine Indication

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), yellow fever vaccination is recommended for people aged nine months or older and traveling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever. The WHO says that arus. A single dose of the yellow fever vaccine promotes sustained immunity for about 90% of people vaccinated by the WHO. In addition, the CDC confirmed that yellow fever vaccines could be administered at any time before, concurrent with, or after any antibody-containing preparation. And a yellow fever vaccine booster dose is unnecessary, says the CDC.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Card

The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP), known as the yellow card, is required to enter certain countries. For example, in the U.S., vaccinated people receive a yellow fever card (ICVP) to prove they recently had yellow fever vaccinations, says the WHO. For specific information on ICVP entry requirements, please see the individual country pages, such as Argentina, AngolaBoliviaBrazil, EcuadorGhana, Kenya, Paraguay, Rwanda, and Uganda. In addition, ICVP requirements are contained in the WHO's Country List. The U.K.'s National Health Service (NHS) updated yellow fever vaccination requirements for specific countries in November 2022, and requirements are available on the CDC Travelers' Health webpage

Yellow Fever Vaccine Fractional Dosage

The peer-reviewed journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases published an Opinion on April 28, 2023, saying the effort put into preventive vaccination of the at-risk population should be unrelenting. Fractional dose yellow vaccination in an emergency or reactive mass vaccination campaign has become essential in stretching the limited vaccine stockpile over a much larger population. On April 28, 2023, The Lancet published phase 4 clinical study results from immunogenicity and safety of fractional doses of 17D-213 yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected people in Kenya, that concluded Fractional doses of the 17D-213 yellow fever vaccine were sufficiently immunogenic and safe, demonstrating non-inferiority to the standard vaccine dose in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts of at least 200 cells per mL. These results confirm that fractional dose recommendations apply to populations with high HIV prevalence.

The Lancet published results from a clinical study in January 2021 (updated Feb. 2022, concluding, 'Fractional doses of all WHO-prequalified yellow fever vaccines were non-inferior to the standard dose in inducing seroconversion 28 days after vaccination, with no major safety concerns. These results support using fractional dosage in the general adult population for outbreak response in a vaccine shortage.' The WHO's initial position on fractional yellow fever vaccine was set out in the 2013 WHO position paper.

Yellow Fever Monoclonal Antibody Treatment

 Research from Oregon Health & Science University and collaborators published in March 2023 indicates lab-made antibodies (mAb) may be able to cure people infected with yellow fever. Administration of a single dose of either mAb to YFV-infected hamsters or nonhuman primates protected against severe disease and death. Separately, the TY014 treatment candidate is directed against the envelope protein on the surface of the Yellow Fever virus and prevents viral replication by limiting viral fusion to host cells. Tysana Pte Ltd is currently conducting a phase 1 study on humans.

Yellow Fever Vaccine Price

The CDC's Vaccines For Children program provides vaccines at no cost to children. Additionally, UNICEF publishes vaccine prices for children. As is the Stamaril vaccine price, outside of the U.S., Sanofi's Patient Connection® offers various vaccine price savings. In addition, Sanofi has live support specialists at (800) 633-1610 to answer patients' questions. And InstantRx™ is a digital gateway empowering people to find lower-priced vaccines easily.

Yellow Fever Travel Advisories

The U.S. CDC and the U.K. Travel Health Advice recently issued yellow fever Travel Advisories. As of 2023, yellow fever outbreak news is posted at Precision Vax.