IPOL Vaccine Description
IPOL vaccine is a highly purified, inactivated poliovirus vaccine with enhanced potency produced by Sanofi Pasteur SA, says the U.S. FDA. IPOL is a sterile suspension consisting of three types of poliovirus: Type 1 (Mahoney), Type 2 (MEF-1), and Type 3 (Saukett).
Sanofi Pasteur's single-antigen IPV (IPOL) is distributed in single-dose syringes or 10-dose vials. In addition, some combination vaccines (several different vaccines in the same shot) contain IPV, such as Pentacel (DTaP-IPV/Hib); IPOL is the inactivated poliovirus vaccine included in the children's vaccine series Pentacel and Quadracel.
Most adults do not need a polio vaccine because they were already vaccinated as children. However, children in the USA should get an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to protect against polio or poliomyelitis, says the U.S. CDC. In addition, children traveling to a country where the risk of getting polio is greater should complete the series before leaving for their trip says the CDC.
Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It can invade the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. The virus enters the body through the mouth and replicates in the intestine. Initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Among those paralyzed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized, says Sanofi.
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IPOL Vaccine Indication
The IPOL vaccine is indicated for active immunization of infants (as young as 6 weeks of age), children, and adults to prevent poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3.
Routine primary poliovirus vaccination of adults (generally those 18 years of age or older) residing in the US is not recommended. However, unimmunized adults who are potentially exposed to wild poliovirus and have not been adequately immunized should receive polio vaccination. In addition, persons with previous wild poliovirus disease who are incompletely immunized or unimmunized should be given additional doses of the IPOL vaccine if they fall into one or more categories listed.
The following categories of adults are at an increased risk of exposure to wild polioviruses: Travelers to regions or countries where poliomyelitis is endemic or epidemic; Healthcare workers in close contact with patients who may be excreting polioviruses; Laboratory workers handling specimens that may contain polioviruses.
IPOL Vaccine Dosage
IPOL is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Single-antigen IPV is distributed in single-dose syringes or 10-dose vials. The recommended dose for both children and adults is 0.5 mL. It can be administered by the intramuscular or subcutaneous route, using a needle length appropriate for the age and size of the person receiving the vaccine.
IPOL Vaccine Active Substance
IPOL Vaccine Active substance: Inactivated Poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) 40D antigen units Inactivated Poliovirus type 2 (MEF-1) 8D antigen units Inactivated Poliovirus type 3 (Saukett) 32D antigen units.
IPOL Vaccine News
October 11, 2021 - Due to a case of polio being reported in the Rivne region of Ukraine, a Rapid Response Vaccination program has been put in place. All children under the age of 5 regardless of previous vaccination will be given an IPV polio vaccine. The TEB and Emergency Situations Commission also decided that unvaccinated children will not be admitted to school. Other forms of education will be provided for such children.
June 14, 2021 - The Ministry of Public Health of Afghanistan and WHO, and UNICEF launched the third national polio immunization campaign. Following a challenging year in 2020, the polio program has intensified efforts to eradicate wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks exacerbated due to disruptions to polio campaigns because of the COVID-19 pandemic. So far, WPV1 and cVDPV2 outbreaks have been contained in all accessible areas of the country.
March 4, 2021 - The U.S. CDC issued a Travel Alert, which said, 'There are polio outbreaks in several countries in Asia. The CDC recommends that all travelers to these countries be vaccinated fully against polio. In addition, before traveling to these countries, adults who completed their routine polio vaccine series as children should receive a single, lifetime adult booster dose of polio vaccine.
December 9, 2020 - According to the latest report from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 countries reported additional polio cases involving vaccine-derived polio. Pakistan: five WPV1 positive environmental samples, six cVDPV2 cases, and eight cVDPV2 positive environmental samples; Central African Republic: one cVDPV2 case; Chad: nine cVDPV2 cases; Somalia: one cVDPV2 case.
December 9, 2020 - Scientists evaluated the two nOPV2 candidates in parallel clinical studies in adults, young children, and infants in two different countries to assess their safety and immunogenicity compared with the licensed Sabin mOPV2 designed to replace them. Designed to be more genetically stable than the licensed Sabin oral vaccine, the new vaccine appears safe. In addition, according to the research published in The Lancet, it provides similar immune responses when tested in healthy adults, children, and infants.
November 13, 2020 - The WHO issued an Emergency Use Listing recommendation for the type 2 novel oral polio vaccine (nOPV2).
June 4, 2020 - The world’s largest company devoted exclusively to the research and manufacture of vaccines has discontinued their Poliovax vaccine production, which is produced using a cell line from an aborted child.
December 11, 2019 - FDA: Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated (Monkey Kidney Cell). IPOL vaccine is indicated for active immunization of infants (as young as 6 weeks of age), children, and adults to prevent poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3.
March 25, 2015 - Sanofi Pasteur announced that the U.S. FDA approved the use of Quadracel™ (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Absorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus; DTaP-IPV) vaccine for active immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis in children 4 through 6 years of age.
December 11, 1987 - Recommendations of the CDC Immunization Practices Advisory Committee Poliomyelitis Prevention: Enhanced-Potency Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine -- Supplementary Statement.
IPOL Clinical Trials
IPOL has been tested in multiple clinical trials. Click here to review all the trials.