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Influenza Vaccines 2023

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Last reviewed
February 4, 2023
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Flu Shots For 2023 - What's New

Influenza vaccines, known as flu shots, protect people against viruses that research indicates will be the most common each year. However, every flu season is different, and each influenza virus can affect people differently, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Nevertheless, numerous studies show that influenza vaccination reduces the odds of intensive care unit admission and enables reduced hospital admissions. Most importantly, influenza vaccines do not cause seasonal flu since they are made with either killed or weakened viruses.

On February 3, 2023, the CDC FluView week #4 report confirmed seasonal influenza activity continues to decline, with seven of 10 regions below their outpatient respiratory illness baselines, and the number and weekly rate of flu hospital admissions decreased compared to week #3.

However, 97 influenza-associated pediatric fatalities were reported during the 2022-2023 flu season.

The World Health Organization (WHO) published Influenza Update N° 437 on January 24, 2023, stating influenza activity decreased globally. Still, In countries of North America, most indicators of influenza activity decreased to levels similar to or below levels typically observed this time of year.

As of January 28, 2023, the CDC reported that about 171 million influenza vaccines had been distributed for the 2022-2023 flu season. Last flu season, about 174.9 million vaccine doses were distributed in the U.S.

And a CDC analysis of 2021-2022 data published by Clinical Infectious Diseases on December 12, 2022, revealed influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against H3N2 influenza was about 36% (95% CI, 20-49%) for all age groups.

Influenza Vaccines 2023

Influenza vaccines are manufactured differently, and preparations have various indications as licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). All flu shots for the 2022-2023 season in the U.S. are quadrivalent, most will be thimerosal-free or thimerosal-reduced vaccine (93%), and about 20% will be egg-free.

The CDC confirmed on June 22, 2022, that 2022–23 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines would include updated reference viruses for A(H3N2) (clade 3C.2a1b, subclade 2a.2) and B/Victoria (B/Austria/1359417/2021). In addition, the WHO published its recommended composition for the 2022-2023 Northern Hemisphere influenza season on February 25, 2022, and published FAQs to explain the changes.

The CDC's Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity Call on September 15, 2022, reviewed - 2022–2023 Recommendations for Influenza Prevention and Treatment in Children: An Update for Pediatric Providers and AAP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFLUENZA SEASON 2022-2023. In addition, on August 26, 2022, the CDC published a Report with updates on three topics: 1) the composition of 2022–23 U.S. seasonal influenza vaccines; 2) updates to the description of influenza vaccines expected to be available for the 2022–23 season, including one influenza vaccine labeling change that occurred after the publication of the 2021–22 ACIP influenza recommendations; and 3) updates to the recommendations concerning vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years.

On June 22, 2022, the CDC's ACIP reviewed the following presentations: Summary and Proposed Recommendations for the 2022-23 Influenza Season and Influenza Vaccines for Persons Aged ≥65 Years, by Lisa Grohskopf, MD, MPH. The ACIP based its recommendation on an evidence review suggesting higher dose flu vaccines (Fluzone High-Dose vaccine and Flublok recombinant vaccine) or adjuvanted flu vaccine (Fluad vaccine) are more effective than standard doses of unadjuvanted influenza vaccines for this age group. In addition, on February 17, 2022, the U.S. CDC updated influenza vaccine schedules for 2022.

Flu Shot Effectiveness 2022

In Canada, the 2022/23 influenza vaccine reduced the risk of medically attended illness by about 50%, which is higher than in Europe (29%) or the USA (36%) during the last flu season.

The U.S. CDC ACIP meeting on October 20, 2022, reviewed the Comparison of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness against outpatient and inpatient illness in the 2021–22 season; provided low to non-significant protection (36%) against predominant influenza A/H3N2 illness of varying severity slide #18. Previously, Lisa Grohskopf with the CDC's Influenza Division presented highlights regarding the current flu season during the ACIP meeting on June 22, 2022. And in September 2022, Australia reported preliminary estimates from sentinel hospitals that flu shot effectiveness appears at the lower end of the moderate vaccine effectiveness (40-60%) range.

Preliminary results for the 2021–22 flu season indicate influenza vaccination reduced acute respiratory illness due to influenza A(H3N2) virus by 35% (95% CI: 19‒47) based on data through April 30, 2022. In addition, a recent CDC study found vaccination reduced the risk of severe flu in children by 78% against similar flu A viruses and 47% against flu A viruses that had drifted from the vaccine's targeted viruses. Influenza Vaccination Coverage for Persons 6 Months and Older is posted by the CDC.

A recent study's finding reinforces the benefit of flu shots reducing illnesses even when circulating influenza viruses have drifted.

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Vaccines 2023

The U.S. government has approved a vaccine for one type of avian influenza (bird flu) virus that protects people from infection and severe disease. The annual flu shot offers no protection for this type of avian influenza, says the CDC.

Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines Recommended

Six months and older:

Afluria is an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine for active immunization against influenza disease caused by subtypes A and B.

Fluarix is prepared from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs.

Flulaval is a quadrivalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza vaccine from a virus propagated in the allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs.

Fluzone Quadrivalent is an inactivated vaccine that prevents influenza disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses.

Two-49 years of age:

FluMist is an Intranasal, live quadrivalent vaccine containing four vaccine virus strains.

Flucelvax is a cell culture-based flu vaccine to help protect against four flu virus strains. 

Eighteen years and older:

Flublok is made without the use of eggs. Therefore, it is not subject to the mutations that are sometimes introduced into the vaccine during egg adaptation that can cause the traditional vaccines to be ineffective. In addition, Flublok contains three times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Sixty-five years and older:

Fluad consists of an inactivated, quadrivalent influenza virus antigen produced in eggs and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, MF59C.1.

Fluzone High-Dose contains four times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Influenza Vaccine Candidates

DelveInsight's influenza report issued for September 2022 indicates over 110 influenza therapies are under development:

Pfizer's quadrivalent modRNA influenza vaccine candidate qIRV (22/23) encodes strains for the Northern Hemisphere 2022-23 cell culture- or recombinant-based influenza vaccines. It has launched a phase 3 clinical study with approximately 25,000 healthy U.S. adults.

CSL sa-mRNA bicistronic influenza vaccine candidates produced a potent, cross-reactive immune response against pandemic and seasonal influenza strains, A(H5N1) and A(H1N1). The sIn addition, theRNA platform recently reported results from a significant Phase III vaccine study, meeting its primary and secondary endpoints of prevention of infection and severe disease with a favorable safety and tolerability profile.

Flu-v Influenza Vaccine is a synthetic universal flu vaccine candidate that offers protection across a broad influenza spectrum forcing 1+NP forcing vaccine candidate consisting of MVA, a replication-deficient pox viral vector safely tested in thousands of patients, generate a robust immune reaction against Matrix 1 Nucleoprotein influenza antigens. 

NasoVAX is a recombinant intranasal vaccine developed for both seasonal and pandemic use.

Redeeflu (M2SR) is a nasal vaccine candidate utilizing a proprietary M2 deleted, single replication influenza virus.

NanoFlu is a quadrivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (H.A.) protein nanoparticle influenza vaccine produced by Novavax in its SF9 insect cell baculovirus system. NanoFlu uses H.A. amino acid protein sequences similar to the recommended wild-type circulating virus H.A. sequences. In addition, NanoFlu contains Novavax's patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

CD388 (drug-Fc conjugate) is a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Cidara Therapeutics intends to initiate a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers in 2022.

CureVac's seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, was developed with GSK. The differentiated multivalent vaccine candidate features multiple non-chemically modified mRNA constructs to induce immune responses against relevant targets of four different influenza strains. Jan. 30, 2023 - Extended Preliminary Phase 1 Data from Joint COVID-19 and Flu mRNA Vaccine Development Programs.

Moderna's combination respiratory vaccine candidate (mRNA-1230) targeting SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV is expected to be initiated in 2022.

Moderna's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030, include eight mRNAs targeting hemagglutinin and neuraminidase at different doses and ratios.

Moderna's mRNA-1010 Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine candidate encodes for the hemagglutinin protein from four seasonal influenza viruses, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza B/Yamagata- and B/Victoria-lineages. A Phase 3 immunogenicity and safety study of mRNA-1010 in the Southern Hemisphere is fully enrolled (~6,000 participants). Initial regulatory feedback supports an accelerated pathway for approval. Moderna is also preparing to launch a Phase 3 efficacy trial in the Northern Hemisphere to demonstrate the superior effectiveness of mRNA-1010 against a currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccine. Moderna to pursue an accelerated pathway for potential approval of the flu vaccine (mRNA-1010) in 2023.

Sinovac Biotech Ltd.'s two-dose inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine is conducting a phase 3 study with children in Chile.

Revelation Biosciences Inc. intranasal REVTx-99a is for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A and B) infection in healthy humans, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS-CoV-2 including its variants.

Cidara Therapeutics CD388 is a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal seasonal and pandemic influenza prevention, conducting a phase 1 study.

Osivax' OVX836 targets the nucleoprotein (NP), a highly conserved internal antigen. Unlike surface antigens, the NP is much less likely to mutate, alleviating the need for annual vaccination updates. The latest results from the Phase 2a dose-optimization study (OVX836-003) found that OVX836 maintained an excellent safety profile at all dose levels and provided protective efficacy in reducing PCR-confirmed influenza-like illnesses by 78%. Topline results from both studies are anticipated in the first half of 2023. 

The U.S. NIH's BPL-1357 is a whole-virus vaccine candidate comprising four non-infectious, chemically inactivated, low-pathogenicity avian flu viruses conducting a phase 1 study.

Emergex Universal Influenza Vaccine candidate is designed to induce CD8+ T cells specific to highly conserved parts of the influenza virus from both the positive and negative sense reading frames. 

Vaxess Technologies, Inc. MIMIX-Flu Vaccine Patch is conducting Phase I Clinical Trial, a first-in-man trial of VX-103.

Influenza Vaccine Price

The U.S. CDC confirmed the Vaccines For Children program is a federally funded program that provides vaccines and medicines at no cost to children. Internationally, UNICEF offers various vaccine price information. And InstantRx™ is a digital gateway empowering people to find flu shot prices easily.

According to Fortune Business Insights, the Global Influenza Vaccine Market size is estimated to reach USD 13.58 Billion by 2029, exhibiting a CAGR of 8.8% between 2022 and 2029.

Flu Shots For Children

Flu vaccination coverage for children (six months to 17 years) as of late April 2022 was about 2% lower than last season (55.3% compared to 57.3%).

Flu Shots For Pregnant Women

Geeta Swamy, MD ACIP, presented on October 20, 2022 - A clinical Trial to compare the safety of Recombinant Influenza Vaccine versus Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Pregnancy (NCT03969641).

Flu Shots For Seniors

Sinead Morris, Ph.D., recently presented to the CDC's ACIP: Recommending that enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in adults aged 65 and older could have wide-ranging impacts on the influenza burden. And Lisa Grohskopf, Influenza Division, CDC, presented: Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults: GRADE Summary. And the JAMA Network reported on August 9, 2022, that adults aged 65 years or older should receive high-dose or adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines.

Flu Shots and Alzheimer's Disease

The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease published a Research Article on June 13, 2022, by UTHealth Houston researchers - Risk of Alzheimer's Disease Following Influenza Vaccination: A Claims-Based Cohort Study Using Propensity Score Matching. People who received at least one influenza vaccine were 40% less likely than their non-vaccinated peers to develop Alzheimer's disease over four years. - The RR was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.59–0.61), and ARR was 0.034 (95% CI, 0.033–0.035), corresponding to a number needed to treat 29.4. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that influenza vaccination is associated with reduced AD risk in a nationwide sample of seniors.

Flu Shots and Asthma

The AAP journal Pediatrics published on March 28, 2022, Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children With Asthma. Conclusion: LAIV4 was not associated with an increased frequency of asthma exacerbations, an increase in asthma-related symptoms, or a decrease in peak expiratory flow rate compared with IIV4 among children aged 5 to 17 years with asthma. 

Flu Shots and Diabetes

Flu vaccination is essential for people with diabetes because they are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications, says the CDC. About 34% of adults hospitalized with the seasonal flu reported to the CDC had diabetes in recent seasons.

Flu Shots and Pneumonia

Pneumonia can often be prevented following vaccination. As of December 29, 2022, the CDC confirmed among the 2,117 deaths reported last week, 968 listed pneumonia as an underlying or contributing cause of death on the death certificate, 866 had COVID-19, and 283 listed influenza. While current mortality is due primarily to pneumonia and COVID-19, the proportion due to influenza is increasing. 

In meta-analyses, influenza vaccination was found to significantly reduces pneumonia- and influenza-related hospitalizations. And on May 31, 2022, a peer-reviewed Original Investigation published by The JAMA Network found that 'Patients with pneumonia admitted to hospitals with high all-cause readmission rates were more likely to develop adverse events during the index hospitalization.'

Flu Shots and Stroke Risk

The peer-review journal Neurology published a Research Article on September 7, 2022 - Influenza Vaccination and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Seniors who received an influenza vaccine were about 12% less likely to have an ischemic stroke (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.92). The study looked at ischemic stroke, which is caused by a blockage of blood flow to the brain and is the most common type of stroke.

Flu Shots and Heart Failure

The Lancet Global Health published a study: Influenza vaccine to reduce adverse vascular events in patients with heart failure: a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Major cardiovascular events are an essential contributor to influenza-associated morbidity and mortality - suggests that there is likely a clinical benefit of giving influenza vaccine, given the apparent reduction in pneumonia, a moderate reduction in hospitalizations, and a reduction in cardiovascular events and deaths during periods of peak circulation of influenza.

In this study published by the JAMA Network in April 2022, the receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent adverse cardiovascular events had a 45% lower risk.

Flu Shots United Kingdom

The U.K.'s NHS says the nasal spray vaccine offers the best protection for children aged 2 to 17 years. They'll be offered a flu vaccine injection if the nasal spray vaccine is unsuitable for them. Injected flu vaccines are also safe and effective. If it's their first time vaccinated against the flu, children under nine years old with long-term health conditions will usually be offered a 2nd dose of the flu vaccine 4 weeks after the 1st dose. 

Flu Shot Side Effects

Influenza vaccines can cause side effects, says the U.S. CDC. However, flu shot side effects are generally mild and dissipate within a few days.

Influenza Vaccines 2023 Southern Hemisphere

David E. Wentworth, Ph.D., presented Global Influenza Virus Surveillance and Characterization, and Jerry P. Weir, Ph.D., Director Division of Viral Products, Influenza Virus Vaccine Strain Selection – 2023 Southern Hemisphere, on October 6, 2022. The WHO announced on September 23, 2022, recommended viral composition of influenza vaccines for the 2023 southern hemisphere influenza season.

The World Health Organization (WHO) published on September 23, 2022, its recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2023 southern hemisphere influenza season. The WHO recommendation is based on data generated by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System.

Influenza Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

Vir Biotechnology, Inc.'s Phase 2 PENINSULA clinical trial evaluates the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of two different doses of VIR-2482 in preventing influenza illness. Designed to be a prophylactic against both seasonal and pandemic influenza A, VIR-2482 has been engineered to have an extended half-life, providing the potential for protection throughout an entire flu season. On December 21, 2022, Vir Bio announced the first participant was dosed in October 2022, and initial trial data are expected in mid-2023.

Zoonotic Influenza News 2023

Please visit the latest Zoonotic Influenza Virus News for additional information on Avian, Pandemic, and Swine influenza.

Influenza Vaccine News

December 21, 2022 - Osivax announced the Last Patient Last Visit (LPLV) in two Phase 2a clinical trials evaluating Osivax's lead T-cell-based, broad-spectrum influenza vaccine candidate, OVX836. The LPLVs were completed in a dose-optimization study underway in Belgium and Australia.

December 12, 2022CSL Seqirus announced its final agreement granting access to a late-stage self-amplifying mRNA (sa-mRNA) vaccine platform technology in the fields of influenza and other respiratory viral diseases. Dr. Bill Mezzanotte, Head of R&D and Chief Medical Officer, CSL, commented in a press release, "Next-generation mRNA technology serves as one of our strategic scientific platforms... and reinforces our longstanding leadership in influenza."

December 9, 2022 - The peer-review journal Nature published a study that concluded: The binding characteristics of PN-SIA28 provide information to support the design of increasingly potent engineered antibodies, antiviral drugs, and/or universal influenza vaccines.

November 24, 2022 - Science.org published: The influenza universe in an mRNA vaccine, An mRNA–lipid nanoparticle vaccine protects animals from 20 influenza lineages.

November 8, 2022 - The journal Nature published: Why older people get less protection from flu vaccines. As people age, their immune response to influenza vaccinations weakens, raising their risk of severe disease. B cells are partly to blame for the decline in vaccine efficacy for people over 65.

October 24, 2022 - Longhorn Vaccines and Diagnostics LLC. reported data from a pre-clinical study of an adjuvanted composite peptide vaccine comprised of various conserved epitopes from both influenza and coronavirus. The data was consistent with Longhorn's lead vaccine candidate LHNVD-105, a composite peptide universal influenza vaccine candidate, delivered with the US Army's Liposomal Adjuvant. Both vaccines generate a robust, durable, and balanced immune response.

October 11, 2022 - The peer-review journal Pediatrics published the first safety and immunogenicity study to evaluate cell-based influenza vaccine in children starting at six months of age —it indicates that cell-based quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (QIVc) was well-tolerated and immunogenic, producing antibody responses that were non-inferior to those elicited with an egg-based QIV in children 6 through 47 months of age.

October 6, 2022 - CSL Seqirus announced that the U.S. BARDA selected the company to deliver an H5N8 A/Astrakhan virus vaccine candidate for assessment in a Phase 2 clinical study that is anticipated to begin in 2023.

October 5, 2022 - CSL announced results from the preclinical studies of the company's self-amplifying messenger RNA (sa-mRNA) influenza vaccine candidates, published in Molecular Therapy – Methods and Clinical Development, indicate that the sa-mRNA influenza vaccine candidates produced a potent, cross-reactive immune response against pandemic and seasonal influenza strains, A(H5N1) and A(H1N1).

September 14, 2022 -  A pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial was launched in the US, evaluating the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of Pfizer's quadrivalent modRNA influenza vaccine candidate.

September 13, 2022 - California-based Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced the initiation of its Phase 2a clinical trial evaluating the pre-exposure prophylactic activity of CD388, a highly potent, long-acting antiviral designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. 

August 26, 2022 - Sanofi's Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent and Flublok® Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines were among the flu vaccines preferentially recommended by the CDC ACIP for adults 65+.

August 25, 2022 - BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the U.S. Department of HHS exercised its option to purchase an additional 10,000 doses of BioCryst's antiviral influenza therapy, RAPIVAB®.

August 11, 2022 - The U.S. FDA approved a supplemental New Drug Application for Xofluza® for treating acute uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy children aged five to less than 12 years of age who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours. 

August 3, 2022 - The Lancet published: Is the UK prepared for seasonal influenza in 2022–23 and beyond? Influenza vaccination rates also dropped in UK healthcare workers from 77% in 2020–21 to 61% in 2021–22, when the vaccine was offered concomitantly with the COVID-19 booster.

August 3, 2022 - Vaxess Technologies, Inc. announced that it had launched a phase 1 trial for the H1 influenza vaccine delivered via Vaxess's MIMIX™ patch.

August 3, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed a Phase 3 trial started in June 2022 in the Southern Hemisphere for seasonal flu vaccine candidate (mRNA-1010) to support potential accelerated approval. The company is preparing for a Phase 3 efficacy study in fall 2022 (if needed). Additionally, the mRNA-1020/-30 Phase 1/2 trial is fully enrolled.

July 28, 2022 - Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited announced the manufacture of its universal/pandemic influenza vaccine, ready for Phase I clinical trials.

July 19, 2022 - Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced that a phase III clinical trial for its inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine was initiated in the Republic of Chile.

July 15, 2022 - The peer-review journal The JAMA Network published an Original INvestigatopm: The v-safe respondents who simultaneously received Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 booster and seasonal influenza vaccines reported systemic reactions in the week after vaccination 8% to 11%, respectively, more frequently than did respondents who received a COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccine alone.

June 28, 2022 - The U.S. NIH announced: "With the BPL-1357 vaccine, especially when given intranasally, we are attempting to induce a comprehensive immune response that closely mimics immunity gained following a natural influenza infection," said Dr. Memoli.

June 14, 2022 - A phase 1 clinical trial in Australia assesses the safety and immunogenicity of the intramuscular, live-attenuated influenza vaccine, CodaVax™- H1N1, in healthy adults.

June 7, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed the first participants of about 6,000 adults had been dosed in a Phase 3 study of the mRNA-1010 influenza vaccine candidate.

May 12, 2022 - The JAMA Network published an Original Investigation on a large cohort study of adults who reported Influenza-like illness symptoms and had data from wearable sensors at symptom onset found an overall reduction in mobility equivalent to 15% of the active US population becoming completely immobilized for one day. More than 60% of this reduction occurred among persons who had sought no medical care. This study suggests that the burden of ILIs is much more significant than had previously been understood.

April 29, 2022 - A meta-analysis published by the JAMA Network Open found the receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower chance. These results suggest that clinicians and policymakers should continue to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination.

April 21, 2022 - Osivax announced the Phase 2a results for its broad-spectrum influenza vaccine candidate, OVX836. The published study demonstrated that OVX836 significantly increased NP-specific cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and initial efficacy signals while being safe and well-tolerated in 300 adult subjects.

April 11, 2022  - Moderna, Inc. announced the first participants had been dosed in the Phase 1/2 study of the Company's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030. The Company intends to enroll approximately 560 participants in the study.

April 5, 2022 - PLOS Medicine published a peer-reviewed study: Prenatal influenza vaccination and allergic and autoimmune diseases in childhood: A longitudinal, population-based linked cohort study. Overall, our findings support the safety of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy concerning allergic and autoimmune diseases in early childhood and support the continuation of current global maternal vaccine programs and policies.

March 31, 2022 - Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the first cohort of healthy volunteers had been dosed in its Phase 1 trial of CD388, a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. 

March 30, 2022 -  Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced results from interim statistical analysis for its Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99a for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) in healthy humans. Efficacy data demonstrated that REVTx-99a did not meet its primary endpoint, the area under the curve of viral load by quantitative RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and the preliminary results suggest the difference between REVTx-99a and placebo was not statistically significant.

March 25, 2022 - The Lancet published a peer-reviewed study: SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. Coinfection with COVID-19 and the flu was associated with a greater likelihood of needing mechanical ventilation (weighted odds ratio [OR], 4.14) and in-hospital death (OR, 2.35). In contrast, weighted ORs for RSV and adenovirus, respectively, were 0.78 and 0.64 for mechanical ventilation and 0.60 and 1.53 for death. These results provide further support for vaccination against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

March 24, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed it is advancing three influenza vaccine development strategies, each with increasing levels of enhancements aimed at improving immune responses. First, a seasonal quadrivalent vaccine (mRNA-1010) using strains is recommended by the WHO. Second, Moderna is adding more hemagglutinin antigens (e.g. H3, H1) to expand strain matching (mRNA-1011/1012). And third, Moderna is adding neuraminidase antigens to target more conserved surface protein regions and broaden immunologic breadth (mRNA-1020/1030).

March 22, 2022 - Scientific Reports published: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and influenza vaccination effect in preventing outpatient and inpatient influenza cases in Spain during earlier flu seasons. Findings: Average effect of current-season influenza vaccination was moderate in preventing influenza in COPD persons. A 13.7% of influenza cases in patients with COPD could be prevented by extending the influenza vaccine coverage.

March 15, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced it had completed enrollment and dosing in Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans. 

March 15, 2022 - ENA Respiratory is developing INNA-051, a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral innate immunomodulator for pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis of respiratory viral infections in populations at risk of complications has dosed its first participants in a Phase 2a flu-challenge study. 

February 14, 2022 - California-based Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the U.S. FDA accepted the Company's Investigational New Drug application for its lead flu drug-Fc conjugate, CD388 – a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza.

February 10, 2022 - CureVac N.V. announced that it had dosed the first participant in a Phase 1 study of its seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, developed in collaboration with GSK. 

February 1, 2022 - Clinical Infectious Diseases published: Comparison of intra-familial transmission of influenza virus from index patients treated with baloxavir marboxil or oseltamivir using an influenza transmission model and a health insurance claims database. Baloxavir treatment contributed to a greater reduction in intra-familial influenza transmission.

January 26, 2022 - PNAS published an article: Researchers getting closer to a "universal" flu vaccine.

January 24, 2022 - The Lancet published: Combining baloxavir marboxil with standard-of-care neuraminidase inhibitor in patients hospitalized with severe influenza (FLAGSTONE): a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial. However, combining baloxavir with NAIs did not result in superior clinical outcomes compared with NAIs use alone. The combination of baloxavir plus NAI was well tolerated. The findings suggest that combination antivirals would not be routinely indicated in clinical practice for hospitalized patients with severe influenza.

January 20, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced that the first group of 15 patients, 18 to 55 years of age, have been enrolled and dosed in a Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) in Belgium to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans.

January 13, 2022 - Manish Patel, MD, and U.S. CDC colleagues published a study in Clinical Infectious Diseases that found influenza vaccine effectiveness was 63% (95% CI 38-78%) against "critical influenza" and 75% (95% CI 49-88%) against "life-threatening influenza" in children.

January 12, 2022 - Lisa Grohskopf, CDC Vaccine Policy Unit Epidemiology and Prevention Branch Influenza Division, NCIRD, presented 'Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults' during the ACIP meeting.

January 5, 2022 - The Journal of Infection published a study by University of Copenhagen researchers of more than 46,112 Danish health workers that found that flu vaccination didn't affect COVID-19 hospitalization or influence the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

    Influenza FAQs

    Note: This page's content is aggregated from the US CDC, the WHO, pharmaceutical manufacturers, university studies, and the Precision Vaccinations news network. This content is reviewed by healthcare professionals, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.

    Clinical Trials

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