Vaccine Info

Influenza Vaccines 2022

Authored by
Last reviewed
May 27, 2022

Flu Shots For 2022 - What's New

Influenza vaccines, known as flu shots, protect people against viruses that research indicates will be most common each flu season. Most importantly, influenza vaccines do not cause seasonal flu since they are made with either killed or weakened viruses.

On Feb. 17, 2022, the U.S. CDC published updated influenza vaccine schedules for children and adults for 2022. On Jan. 12, 2022, the U.S. CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) meeting reviewed the following presentations: Seasonal Influenza Vaccines - H. Keipp Talbot, MD, MPH; Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults - Lisa Grohskopf Vaccine Policy Unit.

The CDC confirmed on Jan. 13, 2022, that flu vaccination protected children against serious flu illness even when they were infected with a flu virus that is antigenically different from the vaccine virus. This study's finding reinforces the benefit of flu shots even when circulating viruses have 'drifted.'

Flu Shots For the 2022-2023 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season

Influenza vaccines are manufactured differently, and preparations have various indications as licensed by the U.S. FDA. The types of influenza vaccines include inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV), both quadrivalent (four-strain) and trivalent (three-strain) vaccines.

The WHO published its recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 Northern Hemisphere influenza season on Feb. 25, 2022. The WHO recommendations are similar to the Southern Hemisphere's 2022 flu season. And the WHO published FAQs to explain the changes.

On March 3, 2022, the FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee selected the influenza vaccine strains for the 2022–2023 season in the Northern Hemisphere.

Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines: 2022 Flu Season

Six months and older:

Afluria is an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by subtypes A and B.

Fluarix is prepared from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs.

Flulaval is a quadrivalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza virus vaccine prepared from a virus propagated in the allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs.

Fluzone Quadrivalent is an inactivated vaccine that prevents influenza disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses.

Two-49 years of age:

FluMist is an Intranasal vaccine, a live quadrivalent vaccine containing four vaccine virus strains.

Flucelvax is a cell culture-based flu vaccine to help protect against four flu virus strains. 

Eighteen years and older:

Flublok is made without the use of eggs. Therefore, it is not subject to the mutations that are sometimes introduced into the vaccine during egg adaptation that can cause the traditional vaccines to be ineffective. In addition, Flublok contains three times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Sixty-five years and older:

Fluad consists of an inactivated, quadrivalent influenza virus antigen produced in eggs and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, MF59C.1.

Fluzone High-Dose contains four times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Influenza Vaccine Candidates

Flu-v Influenza Vaccine is a synthetic universal flu vaccine candidate that offers protection across a broad influenza spectrum forcing 1+NP forcing vaccine candidate consisting of MVA, a replication-deficient pox viral vector safely tested in thousands of patients generate a robust immune reaction against Matrix 1 Nucleoprotein influenza antigens. 

NasoVAX is a recombinant intranasal vaccine developed for both seasonal and pandemic use.

Redeeflu (M2SR) is a nasal vaccine candidate utilizing a proprietary M2 deleted, single replication influenza virus.

NanoFlu is a quadrivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (H.A.) protein nanoparticle influenza vaccine produced by Novavax in its SF9 insect cell baculovirus system. NanoFlu uses H.A. amino acid protein sequences similar to the recommended wild-type circulating virus H.A. sequences. In addition, NanoFlu contains Novavax's patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

CD388 (drug-Fc conjugate) is a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Cidara Therapeutics intends to initiate a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers in 2022.

CureVac's seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, was developed with GSK. The differentiated multivalent vaccine candidate features multiple non-chemically modified mRNA constructs to induce immune responses against relevant targets of four different influenza strains.

Moderna's combination respiratory vaccine candidate (mRNA-1230) is envisioned as an annual booster targeting SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, and RSV vaccines.

Moderna's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030, include eight mRNAs targeting hemagglutinin and neuraminidase at different doses and ratios.

Moderna's mRNA-1010 Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine candidate encodes for the hemagglutinin protein from four seasonal influenza viruses, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza B/Yamagata- and B/Victoria-lineages.

Revelation Biosciences Inc. intranasal REVTx-99a is for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A and B) infection in healthy humans, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS-CoV-2 including its variants.

Cidara Therapeutics CD388 is a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza, conducting a phase 1 study.

Osivax’ OVX836 targets the nucleoprotein (NP), a highly conserved internal antigen. Unlike surface antigens, the NP is much less likely to mutate, alleviating the need for annual vaccination updates. Osivax’ oligoDOM® technology enables the transformation of the NP into a highly immunogenic antigen to trigger powerful T-cell immune responses.

Flu Shot Availability for 2022

As of Feb 25, 2022, about 174.9 million vaccine doses had been distributed in the U.S. Flu vaccines are produced by private manufacturers, so supply depends on manufacturers. Flu shots are generally available at most pharmacies in the U.S. Consumers can request vaccination appointments at this weblink.

Influenza Related Pediatric Fatalities 2021 - 2022

As of May 20, 2022, there have been (24) pediatric influenza-related deaths confirmed as of week #19 during the 2021-2022 flu season. Last flu season, the CDC confirmed (1) flu-related pediatric fatality and (199) during the 2019-2022 flu season. Flu vaccination coverage for children six months to 17 years as of mid-February 2022 was 52.5% compared to 55.3% last year.

Recommending Enhanced Seasonal Influenza Vaccines For Seniors

Sinead Morris, Ph.D., recently presented to the CDC's ACIP meeting - Recommending that enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in adults aged 65 and older could have wide-ranging impacts on the influenza burden. The chance of having a positive impact can be maximized by; A.) having timely/adequate access to enhanced vaccines, B.) promoting standard vaccines when EVs are not available. And Lisa Grohskopf, Influenza Division, CDC, presented: Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults: GRADE Summary.

Flu Shot Effectiveness

Lisa Grohskopf with the CDC's Influenza Division presented highlights regarding the current flu season during the FDA meeting on Mar. 4, 2022. The numbers of influenza-positive participants were insufficient to estimate age group-specific VE or compare the effectiveness of different influenza vaccine products against the predominant A(H3N2) virus. On March 14, 2022, the interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 16% against influenza A and A/H3N2 among patients six months and older, US Flu VE, 2021–22. A recent CDC study found vaccination reduced the risk of severe flu in children by 78% against similar flu A viruses and 47% against flu A viruses that had drifted from the vaccine's targeted viruses

Flu Shot Side Effects

Influenza vaccines can cause side effects, says the U.S. CDC. However, flu shot side effects are generally mild and dissipate within a few days.

COVID-19 Vaccines and Flu Shots

On April 18, 2022, the WHO issued a statement: With the increasing detections of influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic, countries are recommended to prepare for co-circulation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. The WHO that the administration of both vaccines during the same provider visit has advantages and is encouraged. Routine administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines simultaneously is recommended for children for whom no specific contraindications exist at the time of the visit, says the CDC.

The CDC recently stated that 'individuals can get COVID-19 and flu vaccinations simultaneously.' On April 6, 2022, the U.S. FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee digital meeting included influenza and COVID-19 vaccine co-administration presentations.

Maryland-based Novavax, Inc. announced initial results on April 20, 2022, from the Phase 1/2 clinical trial of its COVID-Influenza Combination Vaccine (CIC). The CIC combines Novavax' COVID-19 vaccine, NVX-CoV2373, and its quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate. The CIC trial demonstrated that formulating the combination vaccine is feasible, well-tolerated, and immunogenic.

Influenza Vaccination and Diabetes

Flu vaccination is especially important for people with diabetes because they are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications, says the CDC. About 34% of adults hospitalized with the seasonal flu reported to the CDC had diabetes in recent seasons.

Zoonotic Influenza News 2022

Please visit the latest Zoonotic Influenza Virus News for additional Avian, Pandemic, and Swine flu information.

Influenza Vaccine News 2021 - 2022

May 23, 2022 - In Australia, COVID-19 measures had reduced flu cases to almost nil since 2020 but more than 4,000 cases have already been reported in 2022. In response, all Queenslanders will be offered a free flu vaccination as the State faces a severe outbreak of Influenza A.

May 20, 2022 - The National Center for Health Statistics Mortality Surveillance data available on May 19, 2022, indicates that 7.5% of fatalities that occurred during week #19 were due to pneumonia, influenza, and/or COVID-19 (PIC). Among the 1,409 PIC deaths reported for this week, 790 listed pneumonia as an underlying or contributing cause of death on the death certificate, 592 had COVID-19, and 27 listed influenza, indicating that current PIC mortality is due primarily to pneumonia, not COVID-19 or influenza. 

May 20, 2022 - The ECDC reported three countries reported seasonal influenza activity above 30% positivity in sentinel primary care: Finland (50%), Slovakia (38%), and the Netherlands (31%).

May 13, 2022 - The U.S. CDC reported the majority of influenza viruses detected are A(H3N2). H3N2 viruses identified so far this season are genetically closely related to the vaccine virus. Antigenic data show that the majority of the H3N2 viruses characterized are antigenically different from the vaccine reference viruses.

May 12, 2022 - The JAMA Network published an Original Investigation on a large cohort study of adults who reported Influenza-like illness symptoms and had data from wearable sensors at symptom onset found an overall reduction in mobility equivalent to 15% of the active US population becoming completely immobilized for one day. More than 60% of this reduction occurred among persons who had sought no medical care. This study suggests that the burden of ILIs is much greater than had previously been understood.

May 6, 2022 - The ECDC reported the circulation of influenza viruses in the WHO European Region is slightly higher than in the 2020/21 season but substantially lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic began in late 2019: decreased to 17% from 19% in the previous week. Several countries reported influenza activity above 30% positivity: Finland (80%), Netherlands (60%), Poland (50%), Serbia (38%), and France (33%).

May 2, 2022 - The WHO Influenza Update N° 418 confirmed influenza activity remained low worldwide, with a further decrease in activity in some areas. In North America, influenza activity continued to increase in recent weeks but remained lower than pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels at this time of the year and was predominantly due to influenza A viruses, with A(H3N2) predominant among the subtyped viruses.

April 29, 2022 - A meta-analysis published by the JAMA Network Open found the receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower risk. These results suggest that clinicians and policymakers should continue to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination.

April 21, 2022 - Adults hospitalized with COVID-19 are at higher risk of complications and death than those with influenza, according to a retrospective cohort study conducted at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Further analyses showed that COVID-19 patients spent far longer in hospital (14 days vs. 11 days) and ICU (17 vs. 10 days) compared with influenza patients. Moreover, the average cost of critical care for COVID-19 patients was almost twice as much as for influenza patients (€21,350 vs. €12,082). 

April 21, 2022 - Osivax announced the Phase 2a results for its broad-spectrum influenza vaccine candidate, OVX836. The published study demonstrated that OVX836 significantly increased NP-specific cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and initial efficacy signals while being safe and well-tolerated in 300 adult subjects.

April 18, 2022 - The WHO published Influenza Update N° 417. In North America, influenza activity continued increasing in recent weeks but remained lower than pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, with A(H3N2) predominant among the subtyped viruses.

April 15, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published the Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report, which stated 'The percentage of outpatient visits due to respiratory illness increased slightly this week compared with last week and remained below the baseline. Influenza contributes to respiratory illness levels, but other respiratory viruses also circulate. The relative contribution of influenza varies by location.'

April 11, 2022  - Moderna, Inc. announced the first participants had been dosed in the Phase 1/2 study of the Company's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030. The Company intends to enroll approximately 560 participants in the study.

April 8, 2022 - The U.S. CDC reported that 'The percentage of outpatient visits due to respiratory illness increased slightly this week compared with last week and remained below the baseline. And the influenza virus contributes to levels of respiratory illness, but other respiratory viruses are also circulating. The relative contribution of influenza varies by location.'

April 5, 2022 - PLOS Medicine published a peer-reviewed study: Prenatal influenza vaccination and allergic and autoimmune diseases in childhood: A longitudinal, population-based linked cohort study. Overall, our findings support the safety of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy concerning allergic and autoimmune diseases in early childhood and support the continuation of current global maternal vaccine programs and policies.

April 4, 2022 - A presentation at ACC.22 Virtual! Connect reported by MedpageToday stated 'After either the influenza vaccine or placebo, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients experiencing a composite outcome of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke (14.8% vs. 16%, respectively).'

April 4, 2022 - The WHO published Influenza Update N° 416 - In North America, influenza activity increased in recent weeks but remained lower than pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels at this time of the year and was predominantly due to influenza A viruses, with A(H3N2) predominant among the subtyped viruses.

April 2, 2022 - The ECDC published the Communicable Disease threats report, 27 March-2 April 2022, week #13. The current circulation of influenza viruses across the WHO European Region is slightly higher than in the 2020/21 season but still substantially lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries, mostly in the western-central part of the Region, reported seasonal influenza activity above 50% positivity in sentinel primary care: Serbia (69%), Netherlands (67%), Denmark (63%), Slovenia (62%), France (58%), Belgium (57%), Hungary (57%), and Luxembourg (54%).

April 1, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published week #12 influenza report for the 2022 flu season. As of March 26, 2022, 'Influenza activity is still highest in the central and south-central regions of the country but appears to be declining slightly in these regions. Influenza activity is increasing in the northeast and northwest regions.'

March 31, 2022 - Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the first cohort of healthy volunteers had been dosed in its Phase 1 trial of CD388, a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. 

March 30, 2022 -  Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced results from interim statistical analysis for its Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99a for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) in healthy humans. Efficacy data demonstrated that REVTx-99a did not meet its primary endpoint, the area under the curve of viral load by quantitative RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and the preliminary results suggest the difference between REVTx-99a and placebo was not statistically significant.

March 28, 2022 - The AAP journal Pediatrics published: Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children With Asthma. Conclusion: LAIV4 was not associated with an increased frequency of asthma exacerbations, an increase in asthma-related symptoms, or a decrease in peak expiratory flow rate compared with IIV4 among children aged 5 to 17 years with asthma. 

March 25, 2022 - The Lancet published a peer-reviewed study: SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. Coinfection with COVID-19 and the flu was associated with a greater likelihood of needing mechanical ventilation (weighted odds ratio [OR], 4.14) and in-hospital death (OR, 2.35). In contrast, weighted ORs for RSV and adenovirus, respectively, were 0.78 and 0.64 for mechanical ventilation and 0.60 and 1.53 for death. These results provide further support for vaccination against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

March 24, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed it is advancing three influenza vaccine development strategies, each with increasing levels of enhancements aimed at improving immune responses. First, a seasonal quadrivalent vaccine (mRNA-1010) using strains is recommended by the WHO. Second, Moderna is adding more hemagglutinin antigens (e.g. H3, H1) to expand strain matching (mRNA-1011/1012). And third, Moderna is adding neuraminidase antigens to target more conserved surface protein regions and broaden immunologic breadth (mRNA-1020/1030).

March 22, 2022 - Scientific Reports published: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and influenza vaccination effect in preventing outpatient and inpatient influenza cases in Spain during earlier flu seasons. Findings: Average effect of current-season influenza vaccination was moderate to prevent influenza in COPD persons. A 13.7% of influenza cases in patients with COPD could be prevented by extending the influenza vaccine coverage.

March 21, 2022 - The WHO published Influenza Update N° 415: Globally, influenza activity remained low and decreased this period after a peak at the end of 2021.

March 18, 2022 - The U.S. CDC reported the percentage of outpatient visits due to respiratory illness increased slightly this week but is still below the baseline. Influenza is contributing to levels of respiratory illness, but other respiratory viruses are also circulating. And the number of hospital admissions reported to HHS Protect has increased each week for the past six weeks.

March 17, 2022 - The Wisconsin Department of Health Services confirmed the deaths of three children under the age of 18 due to complications from influenza. These are the first reported pediatric influenza-associated deaths in Wisconsin for the 2021-2022 season.

March 15, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced it has completed enrollment and dosing in Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans. 

March 15, 2022 - ENA Respiratory is developing INNA-051, a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral innate immunomodulator for pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis of respiratory viral infections in populations at risk of complications has dosed its first participants in a Phase 2a flu-challenge study. 

March 11, 2022 - The U.S. CDC's Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report indicates the percentage of outpatient visits due to respiratory illness increased slightly this week but is still below the baseline and other respiratory viruses are also circulating. Two additional influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported this week. There have been 10 pediatric deaths reported this flu season in the U.S.

March 11, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published Interim Estimates of 2021–22 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness — U.S., February 2022. Based on data from acute respiratory infection during October 4, 2021–February 12, 2022, seasonal influenza vaccination did not reduce the risk for outpatient respiratory illness caused by influenza A(H3N2) viruses in the U.S.

March 7, 2022 - The World Health Organization published Influenza Update N° 414 which shows declining flu activity in most regions but increased H3N2 activity was reported in parts of South America. The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 419,390 specimens during that time period and a total of 13,619 specimens (.03) were positive for influenza viruses, of which 9 346 (68.6%) were typed as influenza A.

March 4, 2022- The CDCl is seeking vendors to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of newer and enhanced influenza vaccines for the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza in individuals ≥18 years.

March 3, 2022 - The U.S. FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee selected the influenza vaccine strains for the 2022–2023 flu season in the Northern Hemisphere.

February 25, 2022 - The WHO published recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 northern hemisphere flu season.

February 23, 2022 - The CDC reported as of Week 6 (the week ending February 12, 2022: 3.0% of specimens submitted to clinical laboratories are positive (after peaking at 6% in week 50 and declining to ~2.0% during week 2. And most specimens that are subtyped are H3N2 viruses.

February 22, 2022 - The WHO published Update #N° 413 - In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity decreased with detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) viruses and B/Victoria lineage viruses reported. 

February 14, 2022 - California-based Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the U.S. FDA accepted the Company's Investigational New Drug application for its lead flu drug-Fc conjugate, CD388 – a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza.

February 10, 2022 - CureVac N.V. announced that it has dosed the first participant in a Phase 1 study of its seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, developed in collaboration with GSK. 

February 7, 2022 - The WHO published Influenza Update N° 412, based on data up to Jan. 23, 2022, and the U.S. CDC published its weekly update on Feb. 4, 2022. Both reports indicate influenza cases are decreasing globally. 

February 7, 2022 - Summit, New Jersey-based Seqirus announced an investment in a new, innovative Research and Development facility located in Waltham, Mass., focusing on a self-amplifying messenger RNA (sa-mRNA) technology platform, the next generation of mRNA technology. 

February 1, 2022 - Clinical Infectious Diseases published: Comparison of intra-familial transmission of influenza virus from index patients treated with baloxavir marboxil or oseltamivir using an influenza transmission model and a health insurance claims database. Baloxavir treatment contributed to a greater reduction in intra-familial influenza transmission.

January 26, 2022 - PNAS published an article: Researchers getting closer to a "universal" flu vaccine.

January 24, 2022 - The Lancet published: Combining baloxavir marboxil with standard-of-care neuraminidase inhibitor in patients hospitalized with severe influenza (FLAGSTONE): a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial. However, combining baloxavir with NAIs did not result in superior clinical outcomes compared with NAIs use alone. The combination of baloxavir plus NAI was well tolerated. The findings suggest that combination antivirals would not be routinely indicated in clinical practice for hospitalized patients with severe influenza.

January 20, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced that the first group of 15 patients, 18 to 55 years of age, have been enrolled and dosed in a Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) in Belgium to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans.

January 13, 2022 - Manish Patel, MD, and U.S. CDC colleagues published a study in Clinical Infectious Diseases that found influenza vaccine effectiveness was 63% (95% CI 38-78%) against "critical influenza" and 75% (95% CI 49-88%) against "life-threatening influenza" in children.

January 12, 2022 - Lisa Grohskopf, CDC Vaccine Policy Unit Epidemiology and Prevention Branch Influenza Division, NCIRD, presented 'Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults' during the ACIP meeting.

January 5, 2022 - The Journal of Infection published a study by University of Copenhagen researchers of more than 46,112 Danish health workers that found that flu vaccination didn't affect COVID-19 hospitalization or influence the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

December 28, 2021 - The journal Annuals of Internal Medicine published - Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Influenza, 2010 to 2019; A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study, Conclusion: Over 9 influenza seasons, about one-third of reproductive-aged women hospitalized with influenza were pregnant. And, influenza A H1N1 was associated with more severe maternal outcomes. Pregnant women remain a high-priority target group for vaccination.

December 20, 2021 - The WHO published Influenza Update N° 409 based on data up to December 5, 2021. Globally, influenza activity remains low but continued to increase significantly in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. 

December 16, 2021 - A non-peer-reviewed study involving influenza-vaccinated people's airway cells suggests that a unique H3N2 clade is circulating has differences from key antigenic sites on the hemagglutinin protein of the H3N2 vaccine strain. 

December 16, 2021 - Emergent BioSolutions Inc. announced the first participant dosed in its phase 1 study, EBS-UFV-001, evaluating the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the Company's investigational universal influenza vaccine candidate. This current version contains multiple components intended to induce broad and supra-seasonal immunity against influenza A viruses.

November 15, 2021 - The journal Cell Host and Microbe published an article: Human influenza virus challenge identifies cellular correlates of protection for oral vaccination. The study demonstrated that VXA-A1.1, an investigational oral tablet flu vaccine under development by Vaxart, Inc., had cellular correlates of protection against influenza infection.

November 11, 2021 - The Lancet Respiratory Medicine published results of a Phase 3 study demonstrating the coadministration of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine with an appropriate flu shot is safe and effective. The study considered reactogenicity, immunogenicity, and efficacy. Interestingly, their findings included a slight increase in reactogenicity in the dual-vaccinated group (ie, those receiving both the NVX-CoV2373 and the influenza vaccine) compared with those who received the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine alone, similar concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, and a modest decrease in anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike protein IgG antibodies, but with no overall difference in NVX-CoV2373 vaccine efficacy. 

November 11, 2021 - The Lancet published results of a Phase 4 study confirming that concomitant vaccination with ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 plus an age-appropriate influenza vaccine raises no safety concerns and preserves antibody responses to both vaccines.

October 27, 2021 - A NFID-sponsored survey conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago found overall, most U.S. adults believe vaccination is the best protection against flu, but many do not plan to get vaccinated against flu during the 2021-2022 flu season; 61% agree that flu vaccination is the best preventive measure against flu-related deaths and hospitalizations; 44% of U.S. adults are either unsure or do not plan to get vaccinated against flu during the 2021-2022 flu season.

October 20, 2021 - H. Keipp Talbot, M.D., MPH, Chair, ACIP, Influenza Work Group, presented a 'Seasonal Influenza Vaccine' overview. And, 'Change in Age Indication for Flucelvax Quadrivalent' was presented by Lisa Grohskopf, M.D., MPH.

October 14, 2021 - The U.S. FDA approved FLUCELVAX® QUADRIVALENT cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine for children as young as six months old.

October 13, 2021 - The NEJM published an Original Article regarding the Efficacy of a Cell-Culture–Derived Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine in Children. CONCLUSIONS - IIV4c protected against influenza in healthy children and adolescents across seasons, regardless of previous influenza vaccination. number, NCT03165617.

October 4, 2021 - Seqirus announced that the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority selected Seqirus to develop two influenza A(H2Nx) vaccine candidates for assessment in Phase 1 clinical study to help safeguard communities in the event of an influenza pandemic.

October 1, 2021 -  A study presented at IDWeek found that while there were sharp declines in influenza and RSV and most respiratory viruses in the pediatric population during 2020-2021, rhinovirus continued to circulate in children. In contrast to previous years, the proportion of combined influenza, RSV, and other respiratory viruses declined significantly in 2020 -2021.

September 29, 2021 - Pfizer Inc. announced positive top-line results from a Phase 3 study (B7471004) evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of PREVNAR 20™ in (1,727) adults 65 years of age or older when administered at the same time as the seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluad Quadrivalent). Responses elicited by PREVNAR 20 for all 20 serotypes and by seasonal influenza vaccine when given together were noninferior (the study's primary immunogenicity objectives) to those elicited by the vaccines when administered one month apart. In addition, the safety profile of PREVNAR 20 was similar when the vaccines were coadministered as compared to when each immunization was administered separately, one month apart.

September 29, 2021 - Seqirus announced data supporting the effectiveness of both cell-based and adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines from real-world studies conducted during the USA's 2019/2020 influenza season.

September 24, 2021 - The WHO confirmed its recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2022 southern hemisphere influenza season and posted a related FAQ.

September 23, 2021 - The Lancet Infectious Disease published a new study that concluded by saying 'in seasons when the H3N2 virus predominates, many countries have markedly higher mortality rates than in other seasons, especially in older people, owing to their reduced immune functions. In attempts to overcome the issue of immunosenescence in older adults, new enhanced influenza vaccines are being developed, such as high-dose vaccines or vaccines formulated with potent adjuvants. To some extent, these approaches have helped increase the breadth of antibody immune responses and to stimulate virus-specific T-cell responses, thus improving vaccine effectiveness in the older population.

September 8, 2021 - Novavax, Inc. announced enrollment of participants in a Phase 1/2 study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a combination vaccine using Novavax's NanoFlu seasonal influenza and COVID-19 vaccines. In preclinical studies, the COVID-NanoFlu Combination Vaccine demonstrated robust, functional immune responses to each component of the quadrivalent influenza vaccine and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with Matrix-M adjuvant playing a pivotal role.

September 7, 2021 - The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a Policy Statement: Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2021–2022.

August 24, 2021 - The JAMA Network published the findings of a cross-sectional study that identified racial and ethnic disparities in rates of influenza-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and in-hospital death from the 2009 to 2010 through 2018 to 2019 influenza seasons, with the widest disparities occurring among young children from racial/ethnic minority groups. Because data were not available for the underlying source population, this analysis did not adjust rates for other factors, such as vaccination status, underlying medical conditions, receipt of antivirals, or illness severity at hospital admission, all of which could potentially impact findings.

August 9, 2021 - BioNTech S.E. confirmed BNT161, a Phase 1 clinical trial, is expected to start in the third quarter of 2021. The clinical trial will evaluate modified RNA influenza vaccine candidates based on the proven BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine platform. BNT161 is partnered with Pfizer Inc.

August 5, 2021 - A new study: Impact of mandatory vaccination of healthcare personnel on rates of influenza and other viral respiratory pathogens. 'Our fitted regression models suggest that if influenza vaccination rates in clinics where vaccination was not mandated had equaled those where the flu vaccine was mandated, HCP influenza infections would have been reduced by 52.1% (95% CI, 51.3%–53.0%). '

August 3, 2021 - The journal PLOS published a news study: Examining the potential benefits of the influenza vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: A retrospective cohort analysis of 74,754 patients. Conclusion - Significant findings favoring influenza vaccination mitigating the risks of sepsis, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, emergency department & Intensive Care Unit admissions suggest a potential protective effect that could benefit populations without readily available access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. 

July 29, 2021 - A new study: Single Replication M2SR Influenza Vaccine-Induced Immune Responses Associated with Protection Against Human Challenge with Highly Drifted H3N2 Influenza Strain. Conclusions: Subjects with vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies were protected against infection and illness following a challenge with an antigenically distinct virus. This is the first demonstration of vaccine-induced protection against a highly drifted H3N2 challenge virus.

July 29, 2021 - PHE's Weekly national Influenza and COVID-19 surveillance report through Respiratory Datamart, one influenza-positive sample was detected in week #29 and influenza B. However, other indicators for influenza such as hospital admissions and G.P. influenza-like illness consultation rates remain low.

July 27, 2021 - Seqirus announced that it has begun to ship its portfolio of seasonal influenza vaccines across the U.S. in preparation for the 2021-2022 flu season. The Company is supplying approximately 60 million doses of influenza vaccines for healthcare providers across the U.S.

July 23, 2021 - The U.S. CDC published: Changes in Influenza and Other Respiratory Virus Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic — the United States, 2020–2021. Influenza viruses and human metapneumovirus circulated at historic lows through May 2021. In April 2021, respiratory syncytial virus activity increased. Common human coronaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, and respiratory adenoviruses have been increasing since January or February 2021. Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses began to increase in June 2020.

July 19, 2021 - The World Health Organization reported in its latest global flu update. Globally, despite continued or even increased testing for influenza in some countries, influenza activity remained at lower levels than expected for this time of the year. 

July 11, 2021 - According to a study presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, using the real-time data of thousands of patients, allowing for precise cohort matching and increasing external validity. Our analysis outlines the potential protective effect of influenza vaccination in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients against 15 adverse outcomes within 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of a positive diagnosis. In addition, significant findings in favor of influenza vaccination in mitigating the risks of sepsis, stroke, DVT, E.D. & ICU admissions suggest a potential protective effect that could benefit populations without readily available access to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and thus merits further investigation with future prospective studies.

July 7, 2021 - Cambridge, MA-based Moderna, Inc. announced the first participants had been dosed in the Phase 1/2 study of mRNA-1010, a quadrivalent seasonal influenza mRNA vaccine candidate.

July 1, 2021 - FluGen, Inc. announced that it had been awarded funding from the United States DOD to conduct a study of M2SR, the Company's investigational, supra-seasonal, live, single-replication, intranasal influenza vaccine. 

June 30, 2021 - California-based Meissa Vaccines announced today the first seronegative participants had received MV-012-968, Meissa's intranasal live attenuated RSV vaccine candidate, in a Phase 1c study in infants and young children.

June 22, 2021 - Sanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio (NASDAQ: TBIO), a clinical-stage messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics company, have initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial evaluating an mRNA-based investigational vaccine against seasonal influenza.

June 15, 2021 - The Journal of Experimental Medicine published a study led by Yale researchers that found common respiratory viruses jump-start the activity of interferon-stimulated genes, early-response molecules in the immune system, which can stop the SARS-CoV-2 virus replication within a person's airway tissues infected with the common cold.

June 14, 2021 - The PAHO reported influenza B detections that accounted for most of the meager numbers of worldwide influenza detections.

June 14, 2021 - Seqirus US and Novavax Inc. announced the first study to demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy profile of a COVID-19 vaccine candidate when coadministered with seasonal influenza vaccines. The data non-peer-reviewed is now available on medRxiv.

June 8, 2021 - The JAMA published a population-based cohort study with a mean follow-up duration of 3.6 years; maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy was not significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse early childhood health outcomes.

June 3, 2021 - Data from a systematic review and meta-analysis published in Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses confirming the benefit of Seqirus' MF59®-adjuvanted trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine for adults 65 and older.

June 1, 2021 - The first doses of Seqirus's enhanced influenza vaccine, destined for the U.K., come off a new high-speed fill-and-finish line in Liverpool, UK. Seqirus Liverpool is the largest vaccine manufacturing facility in the U.K., producing over 50m doses of seasonal influenza vaccine each year, with the ability to increase production to 200m doses in the event of an influenza pandemic.

May 28, 2021 - The U.S. CDC confirmed it performs genetic and antigenic characterization of U.S. viruses submitted from state and local health laboratories. These data compare how similar the currently circulating influenza viruses are to the reference viruses used for developing new influenza vaccines and monitor evolutionary changes that continually occur in circulating influenza viruses. The CDC reported it antigenically characterized 9 influenza viruses collected in the United States from September 27, 2020, to May 22, 2021.

May 24, 2021 - Study published by the journal Nature related to key factors impacting vaccine effectiveness among individuals. Results identify leptin (an adipose cell-secreted hormone) as a potential biomarker for vaccine efficacy, with low leptin levels associated with reduced vaccine responses in younger and older individuals.

May 3, 2021 - Seqirus-US announced Phase 3 clinical data demonstrating that the Company's cell-based quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (QIVc) was as safe and immunogenic as a standard quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (QIV) in children six months through <4 years of age during the U.S. 2019/20 influenza season.

April 29, 2021 - Peer-reviewed research: Efficacy of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines among children in rural India: A 2-year, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In this study, LAIV and IIV vaccines were safe and moderately efficacious against influenza virus infection among Indian children.

April 20, 2021 - Seqirus, part of CSL Limited (ASX: CSL), announced new real-world evidence on the Company's MF59® adjuvanted, trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) peer-reviewed medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. Study results indicate aTIV was more effective in reducing influenza-related medical encounters than standard egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine and high-dose trivalent influenza vaccine among adults 65 and older during the 2017/18 and 2018/19 U.S. influenza seasons.

April 15, 2021 - Longeveron Inc. (NASDAQ: LGVN) announced today the completion of the Company's Phase I/II clinical study of using Lomecel-B to improve immune response to influenza vaccine in subjects with Aging Frailty. Lomecel-B is an allogeneic, bone marrow-derived medicinal signaling cell (MSC) product manufactured under current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) by Longeveron. It is anticipated that the top-line trial results will be announced in the 3rd quarter of 2021. Lomecel-B can reduce inflammation associated with Aging Frailty and promote an anti-inflammatory state by releasing anti-inflammatory molecules, which can balance the immune system and improve the function of B lymphocytes. In addition, as B cells are responsible for antibody production in response to vaccines, Lomecel-B may boost antibody generation and immunity following vaccination in subjects with Aging Frailty.

March 30, 2021 - The European Medicines Agency issued recommendations for the influenza virus strains that vaccine manufacturers should include in vaccines to prevent seasonal influenza from autumn 2021.

March 27, 2021 - A study conducted in France published in The Lancet concluded 'Among patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia who met clinical stability criteria, discontinuing β-lactam treatment after 3 days was non-inferior to 8 days of treatment. These findings could allow a substantial reduction of antibiotic consumption.'

March 24, 2021 - Researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine announced they had developed experimental flu shots that protect animals from a wide variety of seasonal and pandemic influenza strains. If proven safe and effective, these next-generation influenza vaccines may replace current seasonal options by protecting against many more strains that current vaccines do not adequately cover. A study appears in the March 24 edition of the journal Nature.

March 19, 2021 - The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation released advice for immunization providers in its Statement on administering seasonal influenza vaccines in 2021. This year both flu and COVID-19 vaccines will be available in Australia. Therefore, it is important to plan vaccination timing to give the best protection against both of these potentially serious diseases.

March 18, 2021 -  A paper published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, physician-researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center assessed the relative impact of COVID-19 on patients hospitalized with the viral infection in March and April 2020 versus patients hospitalized with influenza during the last five flu seasons at the medical center. Overall, the team demonstrated that COVID-19 cases resulted in significantly more weekly hospitalizations, more use of mechanical ventilation, and higher mortality rates than influenza.

March 8, 2021 - Certain patients have an increased risk of influenza infections and poor serologic response to standard influenza vaccination. A new study found that tandem high-dose influenza vaccination leads to more robust and durable seroprotection in high-risk patients.

March 4, 2021 - Seqirus announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had approved FLUCELVAX® QUADRIVALENT, the Company's cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine, for an expanded age indication for people two years of age and older.

March 3, 2021 - RESEARCH ARTICLE INFLUENZA: Broad neutralization of H1 and H3 viruses by adjuvanted influenza H.A. stem vaccines in nonhuman primates. Antibodies elicited by these headless H.A. stabilized-stem vaccines neutralized diverse H1 and H3 influenza viruses. In addition, they shared a mode of recognition analogous to human bnAbs, suggesting that these vaccines have the potential to confer broadly protective immunity against diverse viruses responsible for seasonal and pandemic influenza infections in humans.

March 1, 2021 - PLOS reported 'the global burden of influenza-associated lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations among adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. This meta-analysis estimated influenza viruses are associated with over 5 million hospitalizations worldwide per year. Together, the available data demonstrate the importance of influenza viruses as a cause of severe disease and hospitalizations in younger and older adults worldwide.'

February 26, 2021 - The WHO recommended influenza virus vaccine composition in the 2021 - 2022 northern hemisphere influenza season.

February 24, 2021 - Russian authorities reported the detection of influenza A(H5N8) virus infection in seven poultry workers in an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus on a poultry farm in the south of Russia. All seven human cases were reported to be mild or asymptomatic. HPAI A(H5N8) viruses have circulated in European bird populations since 2014, causing large outbreaks and affecting several million birds and poultry.

February 22, 2021 - MAJOR ARTICLE: Impact of the Influenza Vaccine on COVID-19 Infection Rates and Severity. The odds of testing positive for COVID-19 were reduced in patients who received an influenza vaccine than those who did not by 24%.

February 17, 2021 - Twice annually, the WHO organizes consultations with an advisory group of experts to analyze influenza virus surveillance data generated by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) and issues recommendations on the composition of influenza vaccines for the following influenza season. These recommendations are used by the national vaccine regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical companies to develop, produce and license influenza vaccines.

February 9, 2021 - Study published by The Lancet: Prevention of influenza during mismatched seasons in older adults with an MF59-adjuvanted quadrivalent influenza vaccine: a randomized, controlled, multicentre, phase 3 efficacy study. Summary: The prespecified criterion for showing the efficacy of aQIV in older adults was not met during the influenza seasons with high amounts of vaccine strain mismatch. Vaccine efficacy was higher against influenza cases associated with higher fever, representing a more clinically significant disease.

February 3, 2021 - BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had approved a supplemental new drug application for RAPIVAB® (peramivir injection), expanding the patient population of RAPIVAB for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza to include patients six months and older who have been symptomatic for no more than two days.

February 2, 2021 - Study: A replication-competent adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces durable systemic and mucosal immunity. Intranasal influenza vaccine spurred strong immune response in the Phase 1 study and reported the U.S. NIH.

Universal Influenza Vaccine Research

A key focus of influenza research programs is developing a universal flu vaccine that provides robust, long-lasting protection against multiple flu subtypes, rather than a select few. Such a vaccine would eliminate the need to update and administer the seasonal flu vaccine each year. In addition, it could protect against newly emerging flu strains, potentially including those that could cause a flu pandemic.

Influenza Medicines

Several medications, such as Tamiflu or Xofluza (Baloxavir Marboxil), can reduce the seasonal flu's severity and duration. Still, they're most effective in the first 48 hours after experiencing influenza symptoms. In addition, access to these medicines requires a healthcare provider's prescription.

A JAMA Original Investigation published on August 13, 2021: Comparison of Antiviral Agents for Seasonal Influenza Outcomes in Healthy Adults and Children concluded 'all 4 antiviral agents assessed were associated with shortening TTAS; zanamivir was associated with the shortest time to alleviation of influenza symptoms, and baloxavir was associated with a reduced rate of influenza-related complications.'

    Influenza FAQs

    Note: This page's content is aggregated from the US CDC, the WHO, pharmaceutical manufacturers, university studies, and the Precision Vaccinations news network. This content is reviewed by healthcare professionals, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.

    Clinical Trials

    No clinical trials found