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Influenza Vaccines 2022

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Last reviewed
September 26, 2022
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Flu Shots For 2022 - What's New

Influenza vaccines, known as flu shots, protect people against viruses that research indicates will be the most common influenza virus each year. However, every flu season is different, and influenza can affect people differently, says the U.S. CDC.

Most importantly, influenza vaccines do not cause seasonal flu since they are made with either killed or weakened viruses. In addition, this study's finding reinforces the benefit of flu shots even when circulating influenza viruses have 'drifted.' The World Health Organization (WHO) published on September 23, 2022, its recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2023 southern hemisphere influenza season. The WHO recommendation is based on data generated by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System.

On September 19, 2022, the WHO published Influenza Update N° 428, stating generally, influenza activity has decreased or remained low in most countries during the end of the 2022 flu season. Previously, the U.S. CDC published the Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report on September 23, 2022, which confirmed of 10,436 flu samples, only 35 were found positive for influenza by public health labs. And on September 15, 2022, the UKHSA published The Weekly national Influenza and COVID-19 surveillance report confirming the local positivity remained low in week #35. 

And four real-world studies announced on September 26, 2022, showed the positive impact that cell-based and adjuvanted influenza vaccines have in reducing the burden of seasonal influenza on hospitals and health systems. 

Influenza Season 2022-2023

The CDC's Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity Call on September 15, 2022, reviewed - 2022–2023 Recommendations for Influenza Prevention and Treatment in Children: An Update for Pediatric Providers and AAP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFLUENZA SEASON 2022-2023. On August 26, 2022, the CDC published a Report with updates on three topics: 1) the composition of 2022–23 U.S. seasonal influenza vaccines; 2) updates to the description of influenza vaccines expected to be available for the 2022–23 season, including one influenza vaccine labeling change that occurred after the publication of the 2021–22 ACIP influenza recommendations; and 3) updates to the recommendations concerning vaccination of adults aged ≥65 years.

On June 22, 2022, the CDC's ACIP reviewed the following presentations: Summary and Proposed Recommendations for the 2022-23 Influenza Season and Influenza Vaccines for Persons Aged ≥65 Years, by Lisa Grohskopf, MD, MPH. The ACIP based its recommendation on an evidence review suggesting higher dose flu vaccines (Fluzone High-Dose vaccine and Flublok recombinant vaccine) or adjuvanted flu vaccine (Fluad vaccine) are more effective than standard doses of unadjuvanted influenza vaccines for this age group.

On February 17, 2022, the U.S. CDC updated influenza vaccine schedules for 2022. 

COVID-19 Vaccines and Flu Shots

On September 13, 2022, the CDC's Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity call reviewed: 2022-2023 Influenza Vaccination Recommendations and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines, which stated: Providers should offer influenza and COVID-19 vaccines at the same visit if eligible. This CDC recommendation includes adjuvanted or high-dose influenza vaccines; administered in separate limbs. Studies looking at coadministration have shown that immunogenicity is similar between those who received coadministered COVID-19 vaccine and seasonal influenza vaccine and those who received these vaccines separately.

A peer-reviewed study published by the Journal of Virology on July 12, 2022, suggests that coinfection with influenza A virus (IAV) and the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus changes neither the trajectory nor the severity of influenza A virus, regardless of timing. However, contracting influenza A first could suppress any COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, 'We observe a significant loss of SARS-CoV-2 replication following IAV infection.' The investigators found that the influenza A virus interferes with SARS-CoV-2 replication in the lung and can continue to do so even more than one week after clearance of the IAV, according to the research. 

On April 18, 2022, the WHO issued a statement: With the increasing detections of influenza during the COVID-19 pandemic, countries are recommended to prepare for cocirculation of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. The WHO encourages the administration of both vaccines during the same provider visit.

On April 6, 2022, the U.S. FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee digital meeting included influenza and COVID-19 vaccine co-administration presentations. Routine administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines is recommended for children for whom no specific contraindications exist at the time of the visit, says the CDC.

Influenza Vaccines

Influenza vaccines are manufactured differently, and preparations have various indications as licensed by the U.S. FDA. However, the CDC confirmed on June 22, 2022, that 2022–23 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines would include updated reference viruses for A(H3N2) (clade 3C.2a1b, subclade 2a.2) and B/Victoria (B/Austria/1359417/2021).

In addition, the WHO published its recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2022-2023 Northern Hemisphere influenza season on February 25, 2022. And the WHO published FAQs to explain the changes.

Influenza Vaccine (Flu Shot) Price

The U.S. CDC confirmed the Vaccines For Children program is a federally funded program that provides vaccines and medicines at no cost to children. Internationally, UNICEF offers various vaccine price information. And InstantRx™ is a digital gateway empowering people to find flu shot prices easily.

Influenza Vaccine Clinical Trials

Influenza Vaccine clinical trials are actively recruiting people to join sponsored clinical trials for next-generation flu shots, including a potential universal flu vaccine developed by the U.S NIH.

Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines - Approved

Six months and older:

Afluria is an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine for active immunization against influenza disease caused by subtypes A and B.

Fluarix is prepared from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs.

Flulaval is a quadrivalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza vaccine prepared from a virus propagated in the allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs.

Fluzone Quadrivalent is an inactivated vaccine that prevents influenza disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B viruses.

Two-49 years of age:

FluMist is an Intranasal, live quadrivalent vaccine containing four vaccine virus strains.

Flucelvax is a cell culture-based flu vaccine to help protect against four flu virus strains. 

Eighteen years and older:

Flublok is made without the use of eggs. Therefore, it is not subject to the mutations that are sometimes introduced into the vaccine during egg adaptation that can cause the traditional vaccines to be ineffective. In addition, Flublok contains three times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Sixty-five years and older:

Fluad consists of an inactivated, quadrivalent influenza virus antigen produced in eggs and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, MF59C.1.

Fluzone High-Dose contains four times the antigen of standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines.

Influenza Vaccine Candidates

DelveInsight's influenza report issued for September 2022 indicates over 110 influenza therapies are under development:

Flu-v Influenza Vaccine is a synthetic universal flu vaccine candidate that offers protection across a broad influenza spectrum forcing 1+NP forcing vaccine candidate consisting of MVA, a replication-deficient pox viral vector safely tested in thousands of patients generate a robust immune reaction against Matrix 1 Nucleoprotein influenza antigens. 

NasoVAX is a recombinant intranasal vaccine developed for both seasonal and pandemic use.

Redeeflu (M2SR) is a nasal vaccine candidate utilizing a proprietary M2 deleted, single replication influenza virus.

NanoFlu is a quadrivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (H.A.) protein nanoparticle influenza vaccine produced by Novavax in its SF9 insect cell baculovirus system. NanoFlu uses H.A. amino acid protein sequences similar to the recommended wild-type circulating virus H.A. sequences. In addition, NanoFlu contains Novavax's patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

CD388 (drug-Fc conjugate) is a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Cidara Therapeutics intends to initiate a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers in 2022.

CureVac's seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, was developed with GSK. The differentiated multivalent vaccine candidate features multiple non-chemically modified mRNA constructs to induce immune responses against relevant targets of four different influenza strains.

Moderna's combination respiratory vaccine candidate (mRNA-1230) targeting SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV is expected to be initiated in 2022.

Moderna's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030, include eight mRNAs targeting hemagglutinin and neuraminidase at different doses and ratios.

Moderna's mRNA-1010 Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine candidate encodes for the hemagglutinin protein from four seasonal influenza viruses, including A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and influenza B/Yamagata- and B/Victoria-lineages. A Phase 3 immunogenicity and safety study of mRNA-1010 in the Southern Hemisphere is fully enrolled (~6,000 participants). Initial regulatory feedback supports an accelerated pathway for approval. Moderna is also preparing to launch a Phase 3 efficacy trial in the Northern Hemisphere to demonstrate the superior effectiveness of mRNA-1010 against a currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccine. Moderna to pursue an accelerated pathway for potential approval of the flu vaccine (mRNA-1010) in 2023.

Pfizer's quadrivalent mRNA influenza vaccine candidate encodes strains for the Northern Hemisphere 2022-23 cell culture- or recombinant-based influenza vaccines. It has launched a phase 3 clinical study with approximately 25,000 healthy U.S. adults.

Sinovac Biotech Ltd.'s two-dose inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine is conducting a phase 3 study with children in Chile.

Revelation Biosciences Inc. intranasal REVTx-99a is for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A and B) infection in healthy humans, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS-CoV-2 including its variants.

Cidara Therapeutics CD388 is a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal seasonal and pandemic influenza prevention, conducting a phase 1 study.

Osivax' OVX836 targets the nucleoprotein (NP), a highly conserved internal antigen. Unlike surface antigens, the NP is much less likely to mutate, alleviating the need for annual vaccination updates. The latest results from the Phase 2a dose-optimization study (OVX836-003) found that OVX836 maintained an excellent safety profile at all dose levels and provided protective efficacy in reducing PCR-confirmed influenza-like illnesses by 78%.

The U.S. NIH's BPL-1357 is a whole-virus vaccine candidate comprising four non-infectious, chemically inactivated, low-pathogenicity avian flu viruses conducting a phase 1 study.

Emergex Universal Influenza Vaccine candidate is designed to induce CD8+ T cells specific to highly conserved parts of the influenza virus from both the positive and negative sense reading frames. 

Flu Shot Availability

Walgreens announced on August 15, 2022, that it offers flu shots at nearly 9,000 locations in the USA. Previously, Seqirus announced on July 11, 2022, that it has begun to ship 55 million vaccines from its portfolio of innovative cell-based, adjuvanted, and egg-based seasonal influenza vaccines across the U.S. in preparation for the 2022/23 influenza season. And GSK plc confirmed it expects to distribute over 50 million doses of its influenza vaccine to the US market this year. As of Feb 25, 2022, about 174.9 million vaccine doses were distributed in the U.S. during the last flu season. Flu vaccination coverage for children (six months to 17 years) as of late April 2022 was about 2% lower this season than last season (55.3% compared to 57.3%).

The global Influenza Vaccine market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of about 5.35% to reach a market size of US $6.017 billion in 2027, up from US $4.177 billion in 2020.

During the 2020-2021 flu season, about 47 million flu shots were administered at pharmacies, compared with 32 million doses administered in physician offices. 

Influenza Pediatric Fatalities

As of September 23, 2022, there have been (37) pediatric influenza-related deaths confirmed during the 2021-2022 flu season. Last season, the CDC confirmed (1) flu-related pediatric fatality and (199) during the 2019-2022 season.

Flu Shots For Seniors

Sinead Morris, Ph.D., recently presented to the CDC's ACIP: Recommending that enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in adults aged 65 and older could have wide-ranging impacts on the influenza burden. And Lisa Grohskopf, Influenza Division, CDC, presented: Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults: GRADE Summary. And the JAMA Network reported on August 9, 2022, that adults aged 65 years or older should receive high-dose or adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines.

Flu Shot Effectiveness

On September 16, 2022, Australia reported preliminary estimates from sentinel hospitals that flu shot effectiveness appears at the lower end of the moderate vaccine effectiveness (40-60%) range. Previously, Lisa Grohskopf with the CDC's Influenza Division presented highlights regarding the current flu season during the ACIP meeting on June 22, 2022. Preliminary results for the 2021–22 flu season indicate influenza vaccination reduced acute respiratory illness due to influenza A(H3N2) virus by 35% (95% CI: 19‒47) based on data through April 30, 2022. A recent CDC study found vaccination reduced the risk of severe flu in children by 78% against similar flu A viruses and 47% against flu A viruses that had drifted from the vaccine's targeted viruses

Flu Shot Side Effects

Influenza vaccines can cause side effects, says the U.S. CDC. However, flu shot side effects are generally mild and dissipate within a few days.

Flu Shot and Alzheimer's Disease

The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease published a Research Article on June 13, 2022, by UTHealth Houston researchers - Risk of Alzheimer's Disease Following Influenza Vaccination: A Claims-Based Cohort Study Using Propensity Score Matching. People who received at least one influenza vaccine were 40% less likely than their non-vaccinated peers to develop Alzheimer's disease over four years. - The RR was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.59–0.61), and ARR was 0.034 (95% CI, 0.033–0.035), corresponding to a number needed to treat 29.4. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that influenza vaccination is associated with reduced AD risk in a nationwide sample of seniors.

Flu Shot and Children's Asthma

The AAP journal Pediatrics published on March 28, 2022, Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children With Asthma. Conclusion: LAIV4 was not associated with an increased frequency of asthma exacerbations, an increase in asthma-related symptoms, or a decrease in peak expiratory flow rate compared with IIV4 among children aged 5 to 17 years with asthma. 

Flu Shots and Diabetes

Flu vaccination is especially important for people with diabetes because they are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications, says the CDC. About 34% of adults hospitalized with the seasonal flu reported to the CDC had diabetes in recent seasons.

Flu Shots and Pneumonia

In meta-analyses, influenza vaccination significantly reduces pneumonia- and influenza-related hospitalizations. The risk of post-influenza pneumonia is significantly increased according to the number of concurrent comorbidities in older people. And on May 31, 2022, a peer-reviewed Original Investigation published by The JAMA Network found that 'Patients with pneumonia admitted to hospitals with high all-cause readmission rates were more likely to develop adverse events during the index hospitalization. This finding strengthens the evidence that readmission rates reflect the quality of hospital care for pneumonia.'

Flu Shots and Stroke Risk

The peer-review journal Neurology published a Research Article on September 7, 2022 - Influenza Vaccination and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Seniors who received an influenza vaccine were about 12% less likely to have an ischemic stroke (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.92).

Zoonotic Influenza News 2022

Please visit the latest Zoonotic Influenza Virus News for additional Avian, Pandemic, and Swine influenza information. On August 30, 2022, CDC issued Health Alert Network Health Advisory CDCHAN-00473, which includes updates on recent variant influenza virus infections and summarizes the CDC's recommendations for identification, treatment, and prevention of variant influenza virus infection for the fall of 2022.

Influenza News

September 16, 2022 - Australia Public Health reported the impact of the ending flu season, as measured through the rate of FluTracking respondents absent from normal duties and the number of sentinel hospital patients with influenza, is low to moderate.

September 14, 2022 -  A pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial was launched in the USA, evaluating the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of Pfizer's quadrivalent modRNA influenza vaccine candidate.

September 13, 2022 - California-based Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced the initiation of its Phase 2a clinical trial evaluating the pre-exposure prophylactic activity of CD388, a highly potent, long-acting antiviral designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. 

August 26, 2022 - Sanofi's Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent and Flublok® Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccines were among the flu vaccines preferentially recommended by the CDC ACIP for adults 65+.

August 25, 2022 - BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the U.S. Department of HHS exercised its option to purchase an additional 10,000 doses of BioCryst's antiviral influenza therapy, RAPIVAB®.

August 11, 2022 - The U.S. FDA approved a supplemental New Drug Application for Xofluza® for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in otherwise healthy children aged five to less than 12 years of age who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours. 

August 3, 2022 - The Lancet published: Is the UK prepared for seasonal influenza in 2022–23 and beyond? Influenza vaccination rates also dropped in UK health-care workers from 77% in 2020–21 to 61% in 2021–22, when the vaccine was offered concomitantly with the COVID-19 booster.

August 3, 2022 - Vaxess Technologies, Inc. announced that it had launched a phase 1 trial for the H1 influenza vaccine delivered via Vaxess's MIMIX™ patch.

August 3, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed a Phase 3 trial started in June 2022 in the Southern Hemisphere for seasonal flu vaccine candidate (mRNA-1010) to support potential accelerated approval, and the company is preparing for a Phase 3 efficacy study in fall 2022 (if needed). Additionally, the mRNA-1020/-30 Phase 1/2 trial is fully enrolled.

July 28, 2022 - Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited announced the manufacture of its universal/pandemic influenza vaccine, ready for Phase I clinical trials.

July 19, 2022 - Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced that a phase III clinical trial for its inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine was initiated in the Republic of Chile.

July 15, 2022 - The peer-review journal The JAMA Network published an Original INvestigatopm: The v-safe respondents who simultaneously received Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 booster and seasonal influenza vaccines reported systemic reactions in the week after vaccination 8% to 11%, respectively, more frequently than did respondents who received a COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccine alone.

June 28, 2022 - The U.S. NIH announced a potential universal flu vaccine: "With the BPL-1357 vaccine, especially when given intranasally, we are attempting to induce a comprehensive immune response that closely mimics immunity gained following a natural influenza infection," said Dr. Memoli. "This is very different than nearly all other vaccines for influenza or other respiratory viruses, which focus on inducing immunity to a single viral antigen and often do not induce mucosal immunity."

June 14, 2022 - A phase 1 clinical trial in Australia is assessing the safety and immunogenicity of intramuscular, live-attenuated influenza vaccine, CodaVax™- H1N1, in healthy adults.

June 7, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed the first participants of about 6,000 adults had been dosed in a Phase 3 study of the mRNA-1010 influenza vaccine candidate.

May 12, 2022 - The JAMA Network published an Original Investigation on a large cohort study of adults who reported Influenza-like illness symptoms and had data from wearable sensors at symptom onset found an overall reduction in mobility equivalent to 15% of the active US population becoming completely immobilized for one day. More than 60% of this reduction occurred among persons who had sought no medical care. This study suggests that the burden of ILIs is much greater than had previously been understood.

April 29, 2022 - A meta-analysis published by the JAMA Network Open found the receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower risk. These results suggest that clinicians and policymakers should continue to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination.

April 21, 2022 - Adults hospitalized with COVID-19 are at higher risk of complications and death than those with influenza, according to a retrospective cohort study conducted at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. Further analyses showed that COVID-19 patients spent far longer in the hospital (14 days vs. 11 days) and ICU (17 vs. 10 days) compared with influenza patients. Moreover, the average cost of critical care for COVID-19 patients was almost twice as much as for influenza patients (€21,350 vs. €12,082). 

April 21, 2022 - Osivax announced the Phase 2a results for its broad-spectrum influenza vaccine candidate, OVX836. The published study demonstrated that OVX836 significantly increased NP-specific cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and initial efficacy signals while being safe and well-tolerated in 300 adult subjects.

April 11, 2022  - Moderna, Inc. announced the first participants had been dosed in the Phase 1/2 study of the Company's seasonal influenza vaccine candidates, mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030. The Company intends to enroll approximately 560 participants in the study.

April 5, 2022 - PLOS Medicine published a peer-reviewed study: Prenatal influenza vaccination and allergic and autoimmune diseases in childhood: A longitudinal, population-based linked cohort study. Overall, our findings support the safety of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy concerning allergic and autoimmune diseases in early childhood and support the continuation of current global maternal vaccine programs and policies.

March 31, 2022 - Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the first cohort of healthy volunteers had been dosed in its Phase 1 trial of CD388, a highly potent long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention of seasonal and pandemic influenza. 

March 30, 2022 -  Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced results from interim statistical analysis for its Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99a for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) in healthy humans. Efficacy data demonstrated that REVTx-99a did not meet its primary endpoint, the area under the curve of viral load by quantitative RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and the preliminary results suggest the difference between REVTx-99a and placebo was not statistically significant.

March 25, 2022 - The Lancet published a peer-reviewed study: SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. Coinfection with COVID-19 and the flu was associated with a greater likelihood of needing mechanical ventilation (weighted odds ratio [OR], 4.14) and in-hospital death (OR, 2.35). In contrast, weighted ORs for RSV and adenovirus, respectively, were 0.78 and 0.64 for mechanical ventilation and 0.60 and 1.53 for death. These results provide further support for vaccination against both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

March 24, 2022 - Moderna Inc. confirmed it is advancing three influenza vaccine development strategies, each with increasing levels of enhancements aimed at improving immune responses. First, a seasonal quadrivalent vaccine (mRNA-1010) using strains is recommended by the WHO. Second, Moderna is adding more hemagglutinin antigens (e.g. H3, H1) to expand strain matching (mRNA-1011/1012). And third, Moderna is adding neuraminidase antigens to target more conserved surface protein regions and broaden immunologic breadth (mRNA-1020/1030).

March 22, 2022 - Scientific Reports published: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and influenza vaccination effect in preventing outpatient and inpatient influenza cases in Spain during earlier flu seasons. Findings: Average effect of current-season influenza vaccination was moderate in preventing influenza in COPD persons. A 13.7% of influenza cases in patients with COPD could be prevented by extending the influenza vaccine coverage.

March 15, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced it had completed enrollment and dosing in Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans. 

March 15, 2022 - ENA Respiratory is developing INNA-051, a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral innate immunomodulator for pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis of respiratory viral infections in populations at risk of complications has dosed its first participants in a Phase 2a flu-challenge study. 

February 14, 2022 - California-based Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the U.S. FDA accepted the Company's Investigational New Drug application for its lead flu drug-Fc conjugate, CD388 – a highly potent, long-acting antiviral immunotherapy designed to deliver universal prevention and treatment of seasonal and pandemic influenza.

February 10, 2022 - CureVac N.V. announced that it had dosed the first participant in a Phase 1 study of its seasonal influenza second-generation mRNA vaccine candidate, CVSQIV, developed in collaboration with GSK. 

February 1, 2022 - Clinical Infectious Diseases published: Comparison of intra-familial transmission of influenza virus from index patients treated with baloxavir marboxil or oseltamivir using an influenza transmission model and a health insurance claims database. Baloxavir treatment contributed to a greater reduction in intra-familial influenza transmission.

January 26, 2022 - PNAS published an article: Researchers getting closer to a "universal" flu vaccine.

January 24, 2022 - The Lancet published: Combining baloxavir marboxil with standard-of-care neuraminidase inhibitor in patients hospitalized with severe influenza (FLAGSTONE): a randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial. However, combining baloxavir with NAIs did not result in superior clinical outcomes compared with NAIs use alone. The combination of baloxavir plus NAI was well tolerated. The findings suggest that combination antivirals would not be routinely indicated in clinical practice for hospitalized patients with severe influenza.

January 20, 2022 - Revelation Biosciences Inc. announced that the first group of 15 patients, 18 to 55 years of age, have been enrolled and dosed in a Phase 2b viral challenge study (RVL-VRL01) in Belgium to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal REVTx-99 for the preventive treatment of H3N2 influenza (influenza A) infection in healthy humans.

January 13, 2022 - Manish Patel, MD, and U.S. CDC colleagues published a study in Clinical Infectious Diseases that found influenza vaccine effectiveness was 63% (95% CI 38-78%) against "critical influenza" and 75% (95% CI 49-88%) against "life-threatening influenza" in children.

January 12, 2022 - Lisa Grohskopf, CDC Vaccine Policy Unit Epidemiology and Prevention Branch Influenza Division, NCIRD, presented 'Influenza Vaccines for Older Adults' during the ACIP meeting.

January 5, 2022 - The Journal of Infection published a study by University of Copenhagen researchers of more than 46,112 Danish health workers that found that flu vaccination didn't affect COVID-19 hospitalization or influence the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

    Influenza FAQs

    Note: This page's content is aggregated from the US CDC, the WHO, pharmaceutical manufacturers, university studies, and the Precision Vaccinations news network. This content is reviewed by healthcare professionals, such as Dr. Robert Carlson.

    Clinical Trials

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