Gardasil HPV Vaccine 2022
Merck's Gardasil vaccine consists of 4 proteins of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, yeast protein, sodium chloride, L-histidine, polysorbate 80, sodium borate, and water.
The U.S. FDA initially approved Gardasil for use in the USA on June 8, 2006, and a final approval letter was issued on April 24, 2015. Gardasil is approved for females 9-26 years of age to protect against cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 and genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
The U.S. CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a routine 2-dose vaccination series for girls 9 and 14. The vaccine is also recommended for girls and women ages 13 through 26 who have not yet been vaccinated or received all three doses. Studies show that in women who have never been infected by HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18, the vaccine is highly effective, both in preventing precancerous lesions that often develop into cancer of the cervix, vagina, and vulva and in preventing genital warts caused by these HPV types.
Gardasil is endorsed by the WHO, which says HPV vaccines prevent cervical cancer by preventing infection by various HPV types. Unfortunately, Gardasil is not available in the USA. Gardasil 9 is the featured HPV vaccine in the USA.
Merck & Co., Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical company based in New Jersey and one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies.
Gardasil is a vaccine that prevents diseases caused by 4 HPV types included in the vaccine. HPV vaccination is recommended for all preteens (including girls and boys) at age 11–12 years. All preteens need HPV vaccination to protect them from HPV infections that can cause cancer later in life.
The Gardasil vaccine is an important cervical cancer prevention tool that will potentially benefit millions of women's health. About 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer every year, and almost 4,000 die from this disease in the United States. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, causing 470,000 new cases and 233,000 deaths per year.
Based on the FDA and CDC's review of available information, Gardasil continues to be safe and effective, and its benefits continue to outweigh its risks. Therefore, the CDC has not changed its recommendations for the use of Gardasil. Likewise, the FDA has not changed the prescribing information for how the vaccine is used.
Gardasil U.K. Dosage
Gardasil was offered in the U.K. from September 2012, as a 3-dose course. However, after a review of the data by JCVI, this was revised in 2014 to a 2-dose course for the routine program for girls up to and including the age of 14 years old. Now after reviewing further data, the JCVI will be issuing interim advice on a move to a one-dose schedule for the routine adolescent program.
Gardasil Side Effects
People rarely have a more severe allergic reaction, called an anaphylactic reaction, immediately after HPV vaccination.
Gardasil Sales 2021 - 2022
Merck & Co. reported on February 3, 2022, during the fourth quarter of 2021, GARDASIL/GARDASIL 9 sales grew 53% to $1.5 billion, primarily driven by strong global demand, particularly in China, which also benefited from increased supply. Fourth-quarter 2021 GARDASIL/GARDASIL 9 sales growth was partially offset by lower sales in the U.S. due to the timing of public sector purchases, as well as the replenishment in the fourth quarter of 2020 of doses that were borrowed from the U.S. CDC Pediatric Vaccine Stockpile, which increased fourth-quarter 2020 sales by $120 million.
Gardasil News For 2021-2022
April 28, 2022 - Merck announced GARDASIL and GARDASIL 9 Sales Grew 59% to $1.5 Billion; Excluding the Impact From Foreign Exchange, Sales Grew 60%.
December 16, 2021 - GAVI reported in Kenya, Africa, HPV is the second cause of cancer among women between 15 and 44 years, with approximately 5,250 cases diagnosed yearly. In October 2019, Kenya announced plans to have more than 800,000 girls protected against cervical cancer by introducing the HPV vaccine.
November 12, 2021 - The Lancet published a study funded by Merck: Efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in men: results of an open-label, long-term extension of a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Study Interpretation - The quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides durable protection against anogenital disease related to HPV6, 11, 16, and 18. The results support quadrivalent HPV vaccination in men, including catch-up vaccination.
October 8, 2021 - A cohort phase 4 study in India compared the HPV vaccine efficacy of single-dose to that of three and two doses in protecting against persistent HPV 16 and 18 infection at ten years post-vaccination. Vaccine efficacy against persistent HPV 16 and 18 infections among participants evaluable for the endpoint was 95·4% (95% CI 85·0–99·9) in the single-dose default cohort (2135 women assessed), 93·1% (77·3–99·8) in the two-dose cohort (1452 women assessed), and 93·3% (77·5–99·7) in three-dose recipients (1460 women considered).
September 17, 2021 - Original Research: Trends in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Safety Concerns and Adverse Event Reporting in the United States, was published by the JAMA Network. Safety concern has been identified as a primary barrier to initiating the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the US. However, it is unclear if the public's sentiment concerning HPV vaccine safety aligns with postmarketing vaccine safety surveillance data. Conclusions and Relevance In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a rise in citing safety concerns were observed among parents with HPV vaccine hesitancy, contrary to the severe and nonserious AE reporting trends. These findings suggest an urgent need to combat the rising sentiment of safety concerns among caregivers to increase HPV vaccine confidence.
August 31, 2021 - Fierce Pharma reported Merck's HPV vaccine Gardasil 9, which saw an 11% annual price hike, according to the Bernstein analysts. Gardasil 9 and its sister shot Gardasil were hit particularly hard during the pandemic as patients delayed doctor visits and prioritized COVID-19 jabs. However, those vaccines have started their comeback as sales jumped 88% during the second quarter to $1.23 billion.
August 28, 2021 - The Lancet published a study that found 'Reassuringly, our large well-controlled study does not support that human papillomavirus vaccination increases the risk of non-targeted infectious disease in any clinically meaningful way. While our study does not provide evidence against adverse effects of other non-live vaccines, it does provide evidence against the claim that all non-live vaccines increase the risk of heterologous infections in females.'
August 8, 2021 - Thailand confirmed that all lots of HPV vaccines registered had been certified by the Institute of Biological Products, Department of Medical Sciences.
Gardasil Clinical Trials
Gardasil has been tested in over 195 clinical trials, studying the vaccine's safety, effectiveness, and immunogenicity.
Clinical Trial NCT00923702 - Vaccinated participants were recruited between Sept 1, 2009, and April 8, 2010, and followed up over a median duration of 9 years. 4,348 participants had three doses, 4,980 had two doses (0 and 6 months), and 4,949 had a single dose.
Interpretation: A single dose of HPV vaccine provides similar protection against persistent infection from HPV 16 and 18, the genotypes responsible for nearly 70% of cervical cancers, to that provided by two or three doses.