Zoonotic Influenza Vaccines 2023

Authored by
Last reviewed
May 12, 2023
Content Overview
Swine flu is a Zoonotic deadly disease infecting people in May 2023.

Zoonotic Influenza Vaccines May 2023

Zoonotic diseases are caused by harmful germs, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, says the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These germs cause illnesses in people and animals, ranging from severe to serious infections. For example, zoonotic influenza refers to diseases caused by animal influenza viruses, says the World Health Organization (WHO).

As of May 2023, the U.S. CDC says annual 'flu shots' do not prevent human zoonotic influenza infections such as swine flu (H3N2).

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Vaccines

Avian influenza (Bird Flu) is a disease caused by influenza type A viruses among birds, mammals, and humans. Breaking Avian influenza news is published on this webpage.

Pandemic Influenza Vaccine

If the influenza A(H5N1) virus changes and becomes easily transmissible from person to person while retaining its capacity to cause severe disease, the consequences for public health could be significant. And Pandemic influenza is a novel contagious respiratory disease passed between people in which the severity is unpredictable because human immune systems have not established natural defenses. 

The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009, caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. Estimates indicate that the pandemic caused up to 400,000 deaths globally, with about 12,000 people in the U.S. In April 2007, the U.S. FDA licensed the first inactivated influenza vaccine for people at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype. It was derived from the A/Vietnam/1203/2004 influenza virus a, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc. 

Furthermore, four pandemic preparedness vaccines are authorized in Europe, which can be modified into pandemic influenza vaccines. The EMA conditionally Authorized AstraZeneca's Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 (P/LAIV) in May 2017 to prevent pandemic influenza in children and adolescents.

Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)

When an influenza virus (H3N2 ) in swine is detected in a person, it is called a "variant influenza virus," says the CDC. When animal influenza viruses infect their natural host, they are named for that host, as in avian influenza viruses, swine influenza viruses, equine influenza viruses, etc. The term "swine flu" refers to swine influenza viruses infecting swine. There are different swine influenza virus subtypes and strains, some of which infect other animal species, including (rarely) humans. Most human infections with variant influenza viruses occur following close proximity to swine. However, human-to-human transmission can occur. 

The first swine influenza virus was found in pigs in 1918. Since 2005, 504 variant influenza virus infections (of different influenza A virus subtypes) have been identified in the U.S. The CDC published an interactive analysis of Novel Influenza A Virus Infections in the U.S. India reported 451 cases of H3N2 from January to March 5, 2023.

Taiwan's CDC reported its third H1N2 variant (H1N2v) influenza virus case in May 2023 involving girls who had contact with pig farms in central Taiwan.

Companies operating in the global swine flu vaccine market are Novartis AG, CSL Limited, Zydus Cadila, AstraZeneca plc, Medimmune, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi SA, Baxter, and Sinovac Biotech Ltd.

African Swine Fever

African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease affecting domestic and feral swine of all ages. The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the FDA say ASF cannot be transmitted from domestic and wild pigs to humans.

Langya Henipavirus

Langya henipavirus (LayV), also known as Langya virus, is a species of henipavirus detected in China's Shandong and Henan provinces. Media reports indicated that 35 people were infected from 2018 to August 2022. Hendra virus and Nipah virus from this genus are known to infect humans, with fruit bats as the natural host of both viruses.