Ebola prevention vaccines are given to help protect people from contracting the Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by ebolaviruses. Ebola virus, also known as Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus, can cause severe hemorrhagic fever, leading to high case fatality rates (30–90%) in humans.
Ebola vaccines include replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis (VSV), human parainfluenza (HPIV-3) vectors, and virus-like nanoparticle preparations.
- Ervebo, known as V920 in its investigational phase (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP), is a recombinant, replication-competent Ebola vaccine, consisting of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which has been genetically engineered to express a glycoprotein from the Zaire ebolavirus so as to provoke a neutralizing immune response to the Ebola virus.
- Ad26.ZEBOV is a monovalent vaccine designed to provide active specific acquired immunity to the Ebola virus. The vaccine is based on adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vector expressing the glycoprotein (GP) of the Ebola virus Mayinga variant.
- The University of Tokyo announced ‘they will begin a clinical study on a vaccine candidate for the Ebola virus, a first in Japan.’ This Ebola vaccine was proven both safe and effective in tests involving monkeys. This experimental Ebola vaccine, developed in the lab of UW-Madison scientist Yoshihiro Kawaoka, was produced at Waisman Biomanufacturing,
- rVSVN4CT1-EBOVGP1 is a Monovalent Ebola Zaire Vaccine candidate - in a preclinical study, was found safe and well-tolerated (no vaccine-associated arthritis, dermatitis, or dermal vaculitis was observed), and has a robust level of Ebola virus GP-specific immunogenicity.
Ebola Vaccine News
Ebola Vaccine History
On August 11, 2014, the WHO convened a meeting and concluded there was an “ethical imperative” to develop experimental Ebola vaccines.
West Africa is experiencing the largest, most severe, most complex outbreak of Ebola virus disease in history. Previous Ebola outbreaks have been contained by existing interventions, such as early detection and isolation, contact tracing and monitoring, and adherence to rigorous procedures of infection prevention and control. Effective treatments and vaccines would, however, dramatically strengthen the ability to counter the disease.
Using the groundwork laid by Yale scientists in the 1990s, the first-ever Ebola Zaire vaccine was recently approved by the European Commission.
The Ervebo (v920) vaccine’s approval is the fruition of decades of research led by John Rose, Ph.D., a School of Medicine pathology professor emeritus, who developed a method to genetically engineer the harmless vesicular stomatitis virus, or VSV, to express proteins found on other viruses to build immunity without developing harmful symptoms.
“This was an 8-year endeavor in my lab at Yale,” Dr. Rose said in a Yale press release, published on December 3, 2019.
“We suspected that VSV, which is a type of RNA virus circulating among livestock that is harmless to humans, could be a very potent vaccine platform for numerous diseases, like influenza and HIV. The idea was to insert new genes from pathogens into VSV and use this genetically modified virus as a vaccine.”
When injected, the genetically modifiable virus developed by Dr. Rose’s group allows exposure to disease-causing proteins from a range of harmful viruses while circumventing illness. The body is then able to build immunity to the harmless “mimickers” of infection.
In the case of the Ervebo vaccine, immune cells respond to Ebola surface proteins built onto VSV, and immunological memory can develop without making people sick because the VSV system poses no harm.
According to Dr. Rose, the genetically engineered VSV platform was not intended for treating a specific disease, but rather to be modified for applications in numerous viral diseases. After developing the VSV platform, Dr. Rose and his collaborators provided this system to over 100 labs, including one in Germany working on an Ebola vaccine.
Content Sources for this page include the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Precision Vaccinations news network. This information has been reviewed by Dr. Robert Carlson.