A total of 168 healthy adults aged 18 years and older, volunteers will be vaccinated in this Phase 1 clinical trial. The safety and immunogenicity of intramuscular vaccination and mucosal vaccination of two doses of Ad5-nCoV in different administration schedules will be evaluated.
The Lancet reported findings of this Phase 1 study on July 26, 2021.
Between Sept 28, 2020, and Sept 30, 2020, 230 individuals were screened for inclusion, of whom 130 (56%) participants were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned into one of the five groups (26 participants per group). Within 7 days after vaccination, adverse events occurred in 18 (69%) in the HDmu group, 19 (73%) in the LDmu group, 19 (73%) in the MIX group, 19 (73%) in the 1Dim group, and 15 (58%) in the 2Dim group. The most common adverse events reported 7 days after the first or booster vaccine were fever (62 [48%] of 130 participants), fatigue (40 [31%] participants), and headache (46 [35%] participants). More adverse events were reported in participants who received intramuscular vaccination, including participants in the MIX group (49 [63%] of 78 participants), than those who received the aerosol vaccine (13 [25%] of 52 participants) after the first vaccine vaccination. No serious adverse events were noted within 56 days after the first vaccine. At days 28 after last vaccination, geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody was 107 (95% CI 47–245) in the HDmu group, 105 (47–232) in the LDmu group, 396 (207–758) in the MIX group, 95 (61–147) in the 1Dim group, and 180 (113–288) in the 2Dim group. The geometric mean concentrations of receptor binding domain-binding IgG was 261 EU/mL (95% CI 121–563) in the HDmu group, 289 EU/mL (138–606) in the LDmu group, 2013 EU/mL (1180–3435) in the MIX group, 915 EU/mL (588–1423) in the 1Dim group, and 1190 EU/mL (776–1824) in the 2Dim group.
Aerosolised Ad5-nCoV is well tolerated, and two doses of aerosolized Ad5-nCoV elicited neutralizing antibody responses, similar to one dose of intramuscular injection. An aerosolized booster vaccination at 28 days after first intramuscular injection-induced strong IgG and neutralizing antibody responses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of aerosol vaccination should be evaluated in future studies.