Chikungunya Outbreaks 2023

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Last reviewed
November 27, 2023
Content Overview
Chikungunya outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Brazil, Caribbean Islands, Djibouti, India, Paraguay, and Thailand during 2023.

Chikungunya Outbreaks 2023

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans through the bites of mosquitoes infected with the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya outbreaks were initially recorded in Thailand in 1967 and India in the 1970s. In 2013, the first local transmission of CHIKV in the Region of the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and U.S. territories. The World Health Organization (WHO) says CHIKV was identified in nearly 115 countries as of 2023. As of August 2023, approximately 320,000 CHIKV cases and over 340 related deaths have been reported worldwide by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). On May 3, 2023, the WHO's EPI-WIN webinar presented Entomological Surveillance and Vector Control by Thomas W. Scott, University of California at Davis; Chikungunya: Background and global overview by Diana Rojas Alvarez, MD Ph.D.; Experiences from the current response to the outbreak in the Americas, by Thais H. dos Santos.

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an Epidemiological Alert in June 2023, saying the current CHIKV season expansion is beyond the historical areas of transmission reported since 2014. Most CHIKV patients were in South America, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Bolivia. Updated CHIKV information is posted by Valneva SE.

Africa Chikungunya

CHIKVD cases are mainly located in the Sahel region (Senegal, The Gambia, Burkina Faso, and Mali), where ongoing or previous local transmission of CHIKVD occurred. On November 9, 2023, the U.S. CDC published a Level 2 - Practice Enhanced Precautions, Travel Health Advisory, regarding  chikungunya outbreaks in Burkina Faso, as several districts have reported cases. The Public Health Emergency Response Operations Center confirmed 89 chikungunya cases in Pouytenga in the Center-East region of Burkina Faso in September 2023. And Senegal has reported 210 cases in 2023.

During 2019–2020, a large-scale chikungunya outbreak occurred in the Republic of Djibouti. In this study, researchers used blood samples on blotting paper to detect the emergence of CHIKV, making it possible to confirm 90% of the arboviral diagnoses.

Argentina Chikungunya 2023

Chikungunya was first reported in Argentina in 2016. In 2023, between EW 1 and EW 9, a total of 230 cases were reported, with no deaths. Of the total cases, only 12 have no travel history.

Bolivia Chikungunya 2023

The first case of chikungunya in Bolivia was reported in early 2015. Between EW 1 and 6 of 2023, 300 chikungunya cases were reported, with no deaths, representing an 8-fold increase in patients compared to the same period in 2022.

Brazil Chikungunya 2023

The PAHO reported on March 8, 2023, between EW 1 and 9, a total of 35,566 probable and confirmed chikungunya cases were reported in Brazil, representing a 109.6% relative increase compared to the same period in 2022. One death was confirmed in Espírito Santo, and 13 others are still under investigation. Out of the 27 Federal Units, 25 cases were reported in 2023. According to data from the Brazilian Vigilance Health Secretary, the three Brazilian states with the most CHIKV cases were Pernambuco (29,700), São Paulo (18,100), and Paraíba (9,000) in 2022. And in 2021, in São Paulo, Brazil's most populous state, cases increased from 468 to 18,156 compared to 2020.

Chikungunya clusters with the highest risk were initially located in Brazil's northeast, dispersed to the central-west and coastal areas of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (2018–2021), and then increased in the northeast (2019–2021).

Europe Chikungunya 2023

As of November 2023, the European CDC assessment - EU/EEA citizens traveling to the affected areas should apply personal protective measures against mosquito bites. The likelihood of onward transmission of the chikungunya virus in mainland EU/EEA is linked to the importation of the virus by viraemic travelers into receptive areas with established and active, competent vectors (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti). Aedes albopictus is established in a large part of Europe. Aedes aegypti is established notably in Cyprus, on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, and in the outermost region of Madeira. No autochthonous (local) chikungunya virus disease cases were reported in Europe in 2022.

India Chikungyna 2023

According to a study's findings published in February 2023, India was the most productive country in South Asia, and Thailand was the most productive country in Southeast Asia. 

Paraguay Chikungunya 2023

The U.S. CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices workgroup presented UPDATE AND OBSERVATIONS ON A LARGE CHIKUNGUNYA OUTBREAK IN PARAGUAY on June 22, 2023. From October 2022 to June 3, 2023, 167,239 chikungunya cases were reported. The CDC Health Alert Network issued CDCHAN-00487 on March 2, 2023,  confirming that the Ministry of Health in Paraguay reported 71,478 suspected chikungunya cases in Paraguay since the outbreak began in October 202. Currently, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) chikungunya genotype is circulating; it was first identified in 2018 during an outbreak in the Amambay department and was again identified in samples from 2022 in the Metropolitan Area of Asunción. As a result, an outbreak in Paraguay and surrounding countries is possible. In addition, the CDC reissued a Watch - Level 1, Practice Usual Precautions notice on April 6, 2023, confirming an outbreak of chikungunya in Paraguay's Asunción metropolitan area.

Thailand Chikungunya Outbreak

On December 24, 2022, Thailand health officials reported 1,370 chikungunya cases in 48 provinces in 2022. This data is compared to the 671 cases in 39 provinces in 2021, or a 104% increase. And no deaths were reported in either year.

United States Chikungunya

Before 2006, chikungunya virus disease was rarely identified in U.S. travelers. In October 2023, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed U.S. States reported 81 travel-associated CHIKV cases in 2022. Local transmission of the chikungunya virus has never been documented in New York CityFlorida, and California in 2023. From 2006–2021, 4,590 chikungunya cases in travelers were reported in the U.S.

United Kingdom Chingunguna

In 2023, laboratories in England have a statutory duty to notify the UK Health Security Agency of the identification of the chikungunya virus. Travel- associated chikungunya cases have been reported in the UK.

Chikungunya Vaccines

As of November 2023, the U.S. FDA authorized one chikungunya vaccine.