Next-generation Respiratory Virus Vaccines Need Innovation
Viruses that replicate in the human respiratory mucosa without infecting systemically can cause significant mortality and morbidity and are important public health concerns, wrote a group of health experts, including Dr. Anthony S. Fauci.
Because these viruses, including influenza A, SARS-CoV-2, endemic coronaviruses, RSV, and many other "common cold" viruses, generally do not elicit complete and durable protective immunity by themselves, they have not to date been effectively controlled by licensed or experimental vaccines.
In this perspective published by the journal Cell Host & Microbe on January 11, 2023, these experts examined the challenges that have impeded the development of effective mucosal respiratory vaccines.
They emphasized that these viruses replicate extremely rapidly in the surface epithelium and are quickly transmitted to other hosts within a narrow window of time before adaptive immune responses are fully marshaled.
'We discuss possible approaches to developing next-generation vaccines against these viruses, considering several variables such as vaccine antigen configuration, dose and adjuventation, route, and timing of vaccination, vaccine boosting, adjunctive therapies, and options for public health vaccination policies,' stated this perspective.
In summary, 'past unsuccessful attempts to elicit solid protection against mucosal respiratory viruses and to control the deadly outbreaks and pandemics they cause have been a scientific and public health failure that must be urgently addressed.'
'We are excited and invigorated that many investigators and collaborative groups are rethinking, from the ground up, all of our past assumptions and approaches to preventing important respiratory viral diseases and working to find bold new paths forward.'
The whole unedited perspective is posted at this link.
Disclosures: This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the U.S. NIH and NIAID. And the authors declare no competing interests.