Mpox Vaccines March 2023
Mpox Vaccines March 2023
The United States (U.S.) began offering Bavarian Nordic’s Jynneos® vaccine to healthcare staff in Boston on May 24, 2022, followed by vaccination services in New York City. The U.S. national Mpox vaccine strategy was announced on June 28, 2022. In addition, the U.S. government declared mpox a Public Health Emergency on August 4, 2022, and updated Mpox vaccination schedules were published on August 22, 2022.
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated the U.S. National Mpox Vaccination Strategy on February 6, 2023. The CDC continues to recommend people who have been exposed to the Mpox virus and people who may be more likely to contract Mpox should be vaccinated. Jynneos is available at certain clinics and pharmacies in the U.S.
As of March 2023, over 1.2 million Jynneos doses (1st and 2nd) had been administered in 57 U.S. Jurisdictions. As of February 8, 2023, the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) confirmed it delivered about 857,000 vials of Jynneos vaccines in the U.S.
As of March 2023, Jynneos® is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Mpox vaccine for U.S. military and civilian use, but it is not sold commercially. The U.S. FDA issued Approval for the Jynneos® (MVA-BN, IMVANEX®, IMVAMUNE®) Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine, Live, Non-Replicating, for the prevention of disease in adults on September 24, 2019. In September 2022, NYC Health began offering second doses of Jynneos. The U.S. Mpox Vaccine Equity Pilot Program was announced on September 15, 2022, and is intended to reach populations that may face barriers to vaccination. Up to 50,000 doses of the Jynneos vaccine have been allocated for the program.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved IMVANEX (Jynneos) in 2013 for preventing smallpox in the European Union (EU) and for mpox caused by vaccinia on July 27, 2022. Furthermore, the EMA confirmed on July 27, 2022, that a review of clinical data regarding the use of Imvanex to protect people from mpox disease is ongoing.
The United Kingdom (U.K.) began offering IMVANEX® (Jynneos) to specific mpox close contacts in England in May 2022. As of September 6, 2022, the UKHSA confirmed smallpox (Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)) vaccination was being offered to people who are most at risk right now to help protect them against mpox.
Japan's KM Biologics' LC16 "KMB" freeze-dried smallpox vaccine was approved as an additional indication for the prevention of the mpox virus by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. On August 2, 2022. Reuters reported demand for this LC16m8 vaccine was increasing on August 3, 2022.
Serum Institute of India, Reliance Life Sciences, and Dr Reddy's Laboratory are among a group of firms collaborating on producing a mpox virus protective vaccine in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) began this initiative on July 27, 2022: Collaboration for developing In-Vitro Diagnostic Kits and Vaccine candidates against the mpox virus.
Mpox Vaccine Candidates 2023
Blue Water Vaccines Inc. and AbVacc, Inc. confirmed a joint development of vaccine candidates targeting mpox utilizing BWV’s norovirus shell and protrusion (“S&P”) virus-like particle (“VLP”) platform, which allows for the presentation of multiple antigens on the surface of either the S or P particle of a norovirus backbone.
Emergex Vaccines Holding Limited announced on October 18, 2022, that it has formulated and confirmed the synthesis and assembly of a CD8+ T cell Adaptive Vaccine for smallpox and mpox, comprised predominantly of early “eclipse phase” antigens.
Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. TNX-8011 is a preclinical live virus vaccine candidate based on synthesized horsepox to protect people against mpox and smallpox. In addition, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent on May 31, 2022, entitled "Synthetic Chimeric Poxviruses." In July 2022, the Company announced a collaboration with the Kenya Medical Research Institute to seek regulatory approval for conducting a Phase 1 clinical study. On December 1, 2022, the Company presented the Live Virus Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine.
EpiVax, Inc.'s "Epitope-Driven Vaccine" is a smallpox vaccine candidate predicted to be highly effective against mpox. The development of VennVax, a DNA-prime, peptide-boost multi-T-cell epitope poxvirus vaccine, was funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health (SBIR grant #R43AI058376).
Blue Water Vaccines Inc. announced on August 17, 2022, plans to explore the potential to develop a novel mpox vaccine using its norovirus shell and protrusion virus-like particle platform. Blue Water Vaccines has an agreement with Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center to develop vaccines.
Mpox Vaccine Efficacy
The CDC posted data on December 8, 2022, suggesting the effectiveness of a single dose of JYNNEOS was 87% in people who received one dose subcutaneously (under the skin) and one dose by intradermal (into the skin) administration. The UKHSA's limited analysis on November 22, 2022, estimated that the effectiveness for a single dose was 78% fourteen or more days after the initial vaccination. The WHO stated on June 27, 2022, that decisions around immunization with smallpox or mpox vaccines (pre-emptive or post-exposure) should be by shared clinical decision-making, based on a joint assessment of risks and benefits, between a healthcare provider and prospective vaccinee, on a case-by-case basis. The journal Nature Medicine published a study on October 18, 2022 - Low levels of mpox virus neutralizing antibodies identified after MVA-BN vaccination in healthy individuals.
Smallpox Vaccine Authorizations
Because the human mpox virus (hMPXV) has a double-stranded DNA genome of ~197 kb and is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox, research indicates the Maryland-based Emergent BioSolutions developed ACAM2000® smallpox vaccine may also protect people from mpox. According to the U.S. CDC, past data suggests that the ACAM2000 is about 85% effective in preventing a version of mpox. However, ACAM2000's immunity duration for the new mpox versions is unknown, says the CDC. On August 2, 2022, the FDA confirmed ACAM2000 could be used against mpox under the FDA's Expanded Access Investigational New Drug (IND) mechanism, which requires informed consent and additional IND requirements.
Mpox Alternative Vaccination
The U.S. FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on August 9, 2022, allowing healthcare providers to use an alternative dosing regimen of the JYNNEOS Vaccine to expand the total number of doses available for use by up to five-fold. In addition, the EUA now allows for 0.1ml of the JYNNEOS vaccine to be administered between layers of the skin (intradermally), as opposed to 0.5ml of the vaccine that is administered under the skin (subcutaneously).
The EMA’s Emergency Task Force confirmed on August 19, 2022, that national authorities might decide as a temporary measure to use Imvanex as an intradermal injection at a lower dose to protect at-risk individuals during the current monkeypox outbreak.
The UK Health Security Agency confirmed on August 22, 2022, that it offers eligible patients smaller (fractional dosing ) but equally effective doses of the Jynneos / IMVANEX vaccine.
Mpox Vaccine Coadministration
The U.S. CDC says there is no data on administering the Jynneos vaccine simultaneously as other vaccines. However, there are additional considerations if administering Jynneos and a COVID-19 vaccine (Interim Clinical Considerations). And people, particularly young adult males, might consider waiting four weeks after Jynneos or ACAM2000 vaccination before receiving a Moderna, Novavax, or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, because of the observed risk for myocarditis and/or pericarditis after receipt of ACAM2000 and mRNA vaccines, and the unknown heart health after Jynneos vaccination.
Mpox Vaccines For Children
On August 22, 2022, the U.S. CDC confirmed children and adolescents with exposure to people with suspected or confirmed mpox infections may be eligible for post-exposure prophylaxis with vaccination, immune globulin, or antiviral medication based on shared decision-making, as there is no clinical efficacy data available.
Mpox Vaccine For Nurses
The U.S. CDC published: Health Care Personnel Exposures to Subsequently Laboratory-Confirmed Mpox Patients — Colorado, 2022, and the U.K. HSA published Guidance, Mpox: waiting for your vaccination, on September 6, 2022. Previously, Alison Shely, DNP, FNP-C, wrote an article on August 31, 2022: What Nurses Need to Know About Mpox.
On October 17, 2022, the CDC published a report that describes the first occupationally acquired Mpox infection in a U.S. healthcare worker during the 2022 outbreak.
Mpox Vaccine CPT Codes
The AMA announced Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) codes had been created for immunizations currently available in the USA. The first code (90622) describes the existing FDA-approved ACAM2000 vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pastuer Biologics Co. The second code (90611) describes the FDA-approved JYNNEOS vaccine manufactured by Bavarian Nordic.
Sexually Transmitted Disease Vaccines
The sexually transmitted disease vaccine summary was updated in February 2023.
Mpox Vaccine News 2023
February 22, 2023 - Kevin P. Delaney, Ph.D., MPH Community Engagement and Vaccine Policy and Implementation Task Force, presented at the U.S. CDC ACIP committee meeting - Mpox vaccine acceptability and uptake from cross-sectional surveys.
February 15, 2023 - The AP reported Africa CDC may receive Mpox vaccines from South Korea in 2023.
February 9, 2023 - Tonix announced the publication of a paper entitled, “Single Dose of Recombinant Chimeric Horsepox Virus (TNX‐801) Vaccination Protects Macaques from Lethal Monkeypox Challenge,” in the journal Viruses.
February 6, 2023 - The U.S. CDC updated its mpox vaccine guidelines.
January 3, 2022 - The BMJ Journal published - Although the clinical presentation was similar to unvaccinated cohorts, we observed low numbers of mpox cases following a first dose of MVA-BN vaccination.
November 29, 2022 - The first batch of the Mpox vaccine was donated to Africa through the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention.
November 16, 2022 - The WHO published Annexes to the Vaccines and immunization for monkeypox interim guidance.
October 31, 2022 - Local media reported San Francisco ended its mpox state of emergency.
October 26, 2022 - The U.S. CDC MMWR published an Early Release: Clinicians should consider early treatment with available therapeutics for those at risk for severe monkeypox disease, particularly patients with AIDS. Engaging all persons with HIV in care remains a critical public health priority.
October 21, 2022 - The U.S. CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report the percentages of vaccine recipients who were Black (5.6%) and Hispanic (15.5%) from May 22–June 25 increased to 13.3% and 22.7%, respectively, from July 31–October 10, 2022.
October 7, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published: Incidence of Monkeypox Among Unvaccinated Persons Compared with Persons Receiving ≥1 JYNNEOS Vaccine Dose. Across 32 U.S. jurisdictions, among males aged 18–49 years eligible for JYNNEOS vaccination, monkeypox incidence was 14 times as high among unvaccinated males compared with those who had received a first vaccine dose ≥14 days earlier.
October 6, 2022 - Monkeypox Outbreak Turns More Severe.
October 3, 2022 - Post-Monkeypox Vaccination Breakthrough Infections Confirmed.
September 23, 2022 - A non-peer-reviewed Research Article - Effectiveness of a single-dose Modified Vaccinia Ankara (Jynneos) in Human Monkeypox: an observational study - concluded VE was estimated at 79%, with every wide (95% CI: 24%-94%).
September 20, 2022 - Canada extended its contracts to purchase doses of IMVAMUNE® smallpox vaccine through 2032.
September 9, 2022 - A non-peer-reviewed study, funded by the vaccine manufacturer - Single and 2-dose vaccinations with MVA-BN® induce durable B cell memory responses in healthy volunteers that are comparable to older generation replicating smallpox vaccines - found 'The observed anamnestic responses, in the absence of sustained detectable nAbs, support the presence of durable immunological memory following MVA-BN immunization.'
September 8, 2022 - The AP reported Dr. John T. Brooks, chief medical officer for the U.S. CDC monkeypox outbreak response, indicated people with HIV would become eligible for MPXV vaccination.
September 7, 2022 - Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the European Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority ordered an additional 170,000 doses of the MVA-BN vaccine.
September 6, 2022 - The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced that it is significantly expanding the number of locations supported with direct federal shipments of the Jynneos vaccine and TPOXX treatments.
September 5, 2022 - The media reported India has delayed purchasing monkeypox vaccines based on limited demand.
September 2, 2022 - The UKHSA published an investigation into the monkeypox outbreak in England: technical briefing #7 - vaccinations are contributing to the decline in transmission (moderate confidence).
September 1, 2022 - New York City began offering second doses of the Jynneos vaccine to qualifying people.
August 31, 2022 - San Francisco vaccine sites will provide the second dose of the Jynneos vaccine to people at least 28 days from receiving their first dose, beginning on September 6.
August 28, 2022 - Local media reported German government is distributing about 19,500 additional monkeypox vaccine doses in the country.
August 25, 2022 - The WHO expects human clinical trial vaccine efficacy data to become available in October 2022.
August 25, 2022 - Austin Public Heath received a little over 5,000 vials of the Jynneos vaccines, with 2,544 vials allocated to community partners such as CommUnityCare, which administered 1,910 vaccine doses in one weekend.
August 24, 2022 - The Caribbean and the Americas will gain access to Jynneos in September 2022 due to a new agreement between the PAHO and BH.
August 22, 2022 - Spain launched fractional dosing of Bavarian Nordic's Imvanex vaccine.
August 19, 2022 - The U.S. HHS/ASPR confirmed that 1,061,913 doses of the Jynneos vaccine had been made available under the National Vaccine Strategy.
August 19, 2022 - The EMA joined the U.S. FDA in endorsing smaller intradermally doses of Imvanex/Jynneos can be administered. Given the currently limited supply of the vaccine, this means that more people can be vaccinated.
August 18, 2022 - The U.S. HHS facilitated an agreement between Bavarian Nordic and Grand River Aseptic Manufacturing to establish the first fill and finish line for the JYNNEOS vaccine in the USA.
August 15, 2022 - The UKHSA predicted all of the UK's current supplies of Jynneos vaccine (50,000) would be distributed by the NHS to providers by the middle of August 2022.
August 13, 2022 - CNN reported a letter recently sent to Bavarian Nordic CEO Paul Chaplin, FDA officials responded to concerns Chaplin had raised about the agency's revised vaccination policy. The FDA had determined that the benefits of stretching its limited supply of the two-dose Jynneos vaccine by giving individuals smaller doses outweighed the known possible risks.
August 10, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published updated interim guidelines.
August 10, 2022 - "The European Medicines Agency will discuss the possibility of a dose-sparing approach (Jynneos)," an EMA spokesperson told Reuters. The WHO is seeking clinical data to support this dosing option.
August 9, 2022 - The Danish Health Authority assessed that the vaccine strategy should be changed so that those who are at greatest risk of infection are now offered a preventive vaccination against monkeypox.
August 9, 2022 - U.S. HHS Secretary Xavier Becerra took action that will allow the U.S. FDA Commissioner to grant EUA for monkeypox vaccines following the Aug. 4 declaration of a public health emergency. Specifically, the Secretary issued a determination under Section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act that circumstances justify EUA of vaccines. The FDA then issued a EUA for alternative vaccine dosing.
August 8, 2022 - The U.S. ASPR confirmed the following table details the 617,693 doses of JYNNEOS that have been shipped to jurisdictions.
August 6, 2022 - Local media reported the Phoenix Bar in Faubourg Marigny, New Orleans, says 300 Jynneos vaccines will be given out on a first-come, first-served basis to people who meet the eligibility criteria. The Aug. 9 event is being held in partnership with the Louisiana Office of Public Health.
August 5, 2022 - Italy's Health Ministry announced from Rome: "Interim indications" on the vaccination strategy against monkeypox; and launched a Jynneos vaccination campaign with 4,200 doses.
August 4, 2022 - Local media reported Gwendolyn Herzig, owner, and pharmacist at Park West Pharmacy in Arkansas, said they started giving out the Jynneos vaccine the week of July 25th. Since then, she said they've administered over 80 doses of the two-part Jynneos vaccine.
August 4, 2022 - San Francisco health officials may be considering the use of the ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine to vaccinate people at risk of monkeypox. The California Department of Public Health confirmed to KRON4 that it had ordered 200 doses of ACAM2000. Emergent Solutions, the manufacturer of ACAM2000, told KRON4 that "ACAM2000 is not indicated for the treatment of monkeypox in the US or any other jurisdiction.
August 3, 2022 - Japan-based Meiji announced its smallpox vaccine was authorized for use to prevent monkeypox.
August 2, 2022 - The U.S. FDA stated: that we need to rely on the currently approved two-dose Jynneos vaccine regimen at this time to ensure those who receive the vaccine can feel confident in their protection.
July 28, 2022 - Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp. announced a collaboration with the Kenya Medical Research Institute to plan, seek regulatory approval, and conduct a Phase 1 clinical study in Kenya to develop TNX-8011 as a vaccine to protect people against monkeypox and smallpox. The study is expected to start in the first half of 2023.
July 28, 2022 - New York State confirmed it had secured more than 60,000 doses to date, including those for New York City.
July 27, 2022 - ASPR announced Jynneos allocations (336,710) for the USA.
July 26, 2022 - The U.S. CDC's Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity presentation: Monkeypox Outbreak: Updates on the Epidemiology, Testing, Treatment, and Vaccination.
July 25, 2022 - Bavarian Nordic confirmed the European Commission extended the marketing authorization for IMVANEX®to include protection from monkeypox and disease caused by the vaccinia virus.
July 25, 2022 - According to Israel's Health Ministry, the Time of Israel reported four health maintenance organizations and the heads of Israeli hospitals were informed the highest priority monkeypox vaccinations are men born after 1980 who are HIV positive or are taking PreP medication to reduce their chance of contracting HIV.
July 23, 2022 - The Government of Canada has deployed over 70,000 vaccines to provinces and territories.
July 22, 2022 - The Houston Health Department announced it would keep 3,516 Jynneos vaccine doses and provide 1,508 doses to Harris County Public Health.
July 22, 2022 - U.S. Senators Chris Van Hollen and Jeff Merkley sent a letter to the Department of HHS and the CDC urging the agencies to acknowledge inequities in monkeypox vaccine access and immediately increase access to the JYNNEOS vaccine to all communities in the USA.
July 22, 2022 - The EMA announced the CHMP had recommended extending the indication of the smallpox vaccine Imvanex to include protecting adults from monkeypox disease.
July 21, 2022 - NYC Health announced there would be 17,000 first-dose appointments available to book online or by phone on July 22, 2022, and they will likely fill up quickly. People should get the second dose of the two-dose vaccine at least four weeks after the first dose.
July 19, 2022 - The UKHSA has procured more than 100,000 additional vaccine doses.
July 18, 2022 - Reuters reported that the E.U. secured 54,000 additional Jynneos (IMVANEX®) doses and has already delivered about 25,000 to six E.U. member states.
July 16, 2022 - Washington, D.C., Mayor Muriel Bowser told CBS "Face the Nation" that the city currently has just 8,000 Jynneos vaccine doses but needs 100,000. And Former U.S. FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb commented the window for controlling the spread of monkeypox is "starting to close."
July 15, 2022 - NYC Health reported there are now 461 cases of monkeypox in New York City, which is more than 30% of the recorded cases of monkeypox per the CDC. In addition, approximately 14,500 doses arrived this week from the federal government. The Department will administer these doses at mass vaccination sites and clinics in all five boroughs.
July 7, 2022 - The U.S. HHS announced that it would make an additional 144,000 doses of the JYNNEOS vaccine will begin shipping from the SNS to states and jurisdictions on July 11, 2022.
July 6, 2022 - NYC Health and the City Department of Health stated (6k) thousands of monkeypox vaccination appointments would be available.
July 1, 2022 - The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ordered an additional 2.5 million doses of JYNNEOS, which brings the total vaccines to be delivered in 2022 and 2023 to about 4 million.
July 1, 2022 - Science.org published: Could one dose instead of two suffice?
June 30, 2022 - The Illinois Department of Health will receive 1,291 Jynneos vaccines, and the Chicago Department of Public Health was allocated 3,200 doses, according to the state health department.
June 30, 2022 - The governor of New York announced that 'we will soon have 8,195 doses available. We will continue to work with Dr. Jha and the federal government to ensure future allocations reflect the needs of New Yorkers.'
June 29, 2022 - Quebec health department reported that 7,568 doses of the Imvamune vaccine had been administered since May 27, 2022.
June 28, 2022 - The EMA announced the decision to start its review of Imvanex based on results from laboratory studies (non-clinical data) 'suggesting' that the vaccine triggers the production of antibodies that target the monkeypox virus and may help protect against the disease. The EMA's ETF has recommended that Jynneos can be used to protect against monkeypox disease in the E.U.
June 28, 2022 - The European Commission's Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority began delivering (Spain) a portion of over 109,090 monkeypox vaccines.
June 27, 2022 - D.C. Health announced a limited amount of free monkeypox vaccination appointments are available to eligible District adults residents at PreventMonkeypox.dc.gov.
June 25, 2022 - The WHO announced the Director-General concurs with the advice offered by the IHR Emergency Committee regarding the multi-country monkeypox outbreak and, at present, does not determine that the event constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
June 24, 2022 - NYC Health confirmed that people who may have been recently exposed to the monkeypox virus could get the two-dose Jynneos vaccine at the Chelsea Sexual Health Clinic at 303 Ninth Avenue, Manhattan. If you are eligible to be vaccinated, you can make an appointment online with MedRite.
June 23, 2022 - Chimerix announced a $9.3 million agreement to procure TEMBEXA® (brincidofovir) with a third party outside of North America, with authorization from the requisite healthcare authority. Execution of this contract will be the responsibility of Chimerix.
June 23, 2022 - SIGA Technologies, Inc. announced approximately $13 million of procurement orders for oral TPOXX (tecovirimat) from two new international jurisdictions and one from an Asia Pacific region.
June 21, 2022 - A strategy published by the UKHSA recommends that some gay and bisexual men at higher risk of exposure to monkeypox should be offered vaccines.
June 14, 2022 - Bavarian Nordic A/S announced the European Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority had ordered 110,000 MVA-BN vaccine doses.
June 11, 2022 - Toronto Public Health is holding vaccination clinics to immunize high-risk individuals against the monkeypox virus.
June 10, 2022 - The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ordered an additional 500,000 doses of liquid-frozen JYNNEOS®.
June 2, 2022 - The WHO Africa workgroup reveals mutations that appear across the new sequences. The genomes from the current monkeypox outbreak share 40-some mutations that distinguish them from 2018.
May 31, 2022 - Montreal's public health department reported (that 15) people with links to monkeypox patients had been given the Imvamune vaccine, and around ten others were scheduled. In addition, officials have said several Montreal cases were linked to a visitor from Boston.
May 30, 2022 - China-based Zelixir Biotech announced it has predicted more than 600 structures and added functional annotations of proteins from monkeypox virus proteomes, which are expected to help develop structure-based drug design and monkeypox vaccines.
May 29, 2022 - Germany's Health Minister Karl Lauterbach confirmed they would receive 240,000 vaccine doses against monkeypox.
May 27, 2022 - The U.S. CDC published: Use of JYNNEOS (Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Nonreplicating) for Preexposure Vaccination of Persons at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses.
May 24, 2022 - The Lancet published: Clinical features and management of human monkeypox: a retrospective observational study in the U.K. Interpretation - Prolonged upper respiratory tract viral DNA shedding after skin lesion resolution challenged current infection prevention and control guidance.
May 23, 2022 - Moderna Inc. Tweeted: we are investigating potential monkeypox vaccines at a preclinical level.
May 19, 2022 - Bavarian Nordic A/S announced it secured a contract with an undisclosed buyer to supply its EU-approved IMVANEX® (Jynneos) smallpox/monkeypox vaccine.
May 18, 2022 - The WHO confirmed monkeypox vaccinations (MVA-BN, Jynneos) are offered to higher-risk contacts in England.
November 3, 2021 - The CDC's Advisory Committee and Immunization Practices voted to recommend vaccination for select persons at risk for occupational exposure to orthopoxviruses. Summary of Evidence to Recommendations Frameworks for the use of JYNNEOS®.
March 5, 2018 - The U.S. FDA issued STN: BL 125109 to Cangene Corp, License #1201, for Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human).
July 14, 2020 - ScienceDirect published a Conference Report: Human monkeypox – After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication.
December 12, 2017 - Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research; these data—and data from biomedical research involving burns, superficial wounds, herpes, eczema vaccinatum, and so forth—suggest that MPX patients could benefit from clinical support to mitigate the consequences of compromised skin and mucosa. This should include preventing and treating secondary bacterial infections (and other complications), ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, and protecting vulnerable anatomical locations such as the eyes and genitals.
August 5, 2015 - Study: Evasion of the Innate Immune Type I Interferon System by Monkeypox Virus.
Monkeypox Virus Disease
Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic virus that is transmitted from one person to another by physical contact with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets, and contaminated materials. Monkeypox disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The monkeypox virus has two distinct genetic clades; the Congo Basin and West African clades, says the WHO.