Severe Dengue is a more serious form of Dengue Fever disease that can result in shock, internal bleeding, and even death. Severe Dengue is a potentially lethal complication that can develop from dengue infections.
People are more likely to develop Severe Dengue if they have had dengue infection before. Dengue is caused by one of four related viruses: Dengue virus 1, 2, 3, and 4. For this reason, a person can be infected with a dengue virus as many as four times in his or her lifetime.
About 3 billion people live in 100 areas with a risk of dengue. Approximately 100 million people get sick from a dengue infection and Severe Dengue causes about 22,000 related fatalities.
Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito.
Severe Dengue prevention vaccines
* Dengvaxia - FDA approved for use in the USA, and in about 20 countries. Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) Dosage is currently given as a three-dose series 6 months apart (at months 0, 6, and 12). It is administered as a subcutaneous injection.
* TAK-003 - Is an investigational live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine, preventing dengue fever caused by any of the 4 serotypes of the dengue virus. Takeda's tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate TAK-003 iDENVax is based on a live-attenuated dengue serotype 2 virus, which provides the genetic “backbone” for all four vaccine viruses.
* TetraVax-DV-TV003 - TV003 is a live attenuated tetravalent Dengue vaccine currently in phase 2 evaluation. TV003 contains 10^3.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL of rDEN1Δ30, 10^3.3 PFU/mL of rDEN2/4Δ30(ME), 10^3.3 PFU/mL of rDEN3Δ30/31-7164, and 10^3.3 PFU/mL of rDEN4Δ30. Administered by subcutaneous injection in the deltoid region of the upper arm.
Severe Dengue diagnostics
Serve Dengue testing is used to determine whether a person with signs and symptoms and recent potential exposure have been infected with the dengue virus. A blood test is the only way to confirm a dengue diagnosis. A healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for dengue or similar viruses, such as Zika or Chikungunya.
Dengue testing is used to determine whether a person with signs and symptoms and recent potential exposure have been infected with the dengue virus. Additionally, the World Health Organization recommends that the vaccine only be given to persons with confirmed prior dengue virus infection. Dengue virus testing is not recommended for Asymptomatic patients or Preconception screening.
To accurately diagnose dengue virus infection, perform antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on a single serum specimen collected within the first 10 days of illness.
There are several different types of blood tests that can indicate a dengue infection:
Molecular tests for dengue virus (PCR)—detect the presence of the virus itself; these tests can diagnose dengue fever up to 7 days after the onset of symptoms and can be used to determine which of the 4 different serotypes of dengue virus is causing the infection.
Antibody tests, IgM and IgG—detect antibodies produced by the immune system when a person has been exposed to the virus; these tests are most effective when performed at least 4 days after exposure.
Complete blood count (CBC)—to look for low platelet count typical of the later stages of the illness and to detect the decrease in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell (RBC) count (evidence of anemia) that would occur with blood loss associated with severe dengue fever
Basic metabolic panel (BMP) – to monitor kidney function and look for evidence of dehydration
Serve Dengue Symptoms
Warning signs of Severe Dengue generally begin in the 24–48 hours after a dengue fever has gone away. When developing into Severe Dengue, the critical phase takes place around 3-7 days after the first sign of illness. The patient's temperature will decrease. This does not mean the person is necessarily recovering
If you or a family member develops any of the following symptoms, immediately go to a local clinic or emergency room:
- Stomach or belly pain, tenderness
- Vomiting (at least 3 times in 24 hours)
- Bleeding from the nose or gums
- Vomiting blood, or blood in the stool
- Feeling tired, restless, or irritable
When Severe Dengue is suspected, the person should be rushed to the emergency room or to the closest health care provider as it causes: Plasma leaking that may lead to shock and/or fluid accumulation with/without respiratory distress.
Content sources: World Health Organization, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pan American Health Organization, and the Precision Vaccinations news network.